Share to: share facebook share twitter share wa share telegram print page

E (Kiril)

Huruf Kiril E
Penggunaan Fonetis:[e], [ɛ]
Sampel suara
noicon
Alfabet Kiril
Huruf Slavia
АА́А̀А̂А̄ӒБ
ВГҐДЂЃЕ
Е́ÈЕ̂ЁЄЖЗ
З́ЅИИ́ЍИ̂Й
ІЇЈКЛЉМ
НЊОŌПРС
С́ТЋЌУУ́ У̀
У̂ӮЎФХЦЧ
ЏШЩЪЫЬЭ
ЮЯ
Huruf non-Slavia
ӐА̊А̃Ӓ̄ӔӘӘ́
Ә̃ӚВ̌ҒГ̑Г̣Г̌
ҔӺҒ̌ӶД̌Д̣Д̆
ӖЕ̄Е̃Ё̄Є̈ӁҖ
ӜҘӞЗ̌З̱З̣Ԑ
Ԑ̈ӠӢИ̃ҊӤҚ
ӃҠҞҜК̣ԚӅ
ԮԒӍӉҢԨӇ
ҤО́О̀О̆О̂О̃Ӧ
Ӧ̄ӨӨ̄Ө́Ө̆ӪҨ
ԤР̌ҎҪС̣С̱Т̌
Т̣ҬУ̃Ӱ Ӱ́Ӱ̄Ӳ
ҮҮ́ҰХ̣Х̱Х̮Х̑
ҲӼӾҺҺ̈ԦҴ
ҶӴӋҸҼҾЫ̆
Ы̄ӸҌЭ̆Э̄Э̇Ӭ
Ӭ́Ӭ̄Ю̆Ю̈Ю̈́Ю̄Я̆
Я̄Я̈ Я̈́ԜӀ
Huruf Kuno atau tidak digunakan
ҀѺ
ОУѠѼѾ
ѢѤѦ
ѪѨѬѮ
ѰѲѴѶԘ
ԀԔԖԠԢ
Ҧ
ԂԄԈԊԌ
ԎԆԞ
ԪԬГ̧Г̄

E (Э э; italik: Æ æ; juga dikenal sebagai e terbalik, dari Rusia э оборо́тное, e oborótnoye, [ˈɛ ɐbɐˈrotnəjə] adalah huruf yang ditemukan dua Bahasa Slavia: Rusia dan Belarus. Itu melambangkan vokal [e] dan [ɛ], seperti e dalam kata "editor". Dalam bahasa Slavia lain yang menggunakan Alfabet Kiril, bunyinya diwakili oleh Ye (Е е), yang mewakili bahasa Rusia dan Belarusia [je] di posisi awal dan postvokal atau [e] dan konsonan yang terpalatalisasi sebelumnya. Huruf ini sangat mirip dan tidak boleh disamakan dengan huruf Kiril yang lebih tua Ye Ukraina (Є є), di mana Э adalah versi terbalik.

Dalam Alfabet Kiril Moldova, yang digunakan di RSS Moldova selama Uni Soviet dan masih digunakan di Transnistria, hurufnya sesuai dengan [ă] dalam bahasa Rumania latin, dan fonem [ə]. Ini juga digunakan dalam Alfabet Kiril yang digunakan oleh Mongolia dan banyak Uralik, Kaukasia dan Turkik bekas Uni Soviet.

Asal

Huruf э berasal dari abad ketiga belas sebagai varian dari є, pada awalnya, menurut Đorđić [1] dalam posisi akhir baris superskrip, tetapi pada akhir abad ini juga di tempat lain.[2] Pada abad-abad berikutnya ia terus muncul secara sporadis sebagai varian yang tidak biasa dari є, tetapi paling lambat pada abad ke-15 di antara orang-orang Slavia Timur itu mulai digunakan untuk menunjukkan inisial (tidak teriotasikan) [e]. Menurut Yefim Karskiy, "Ustav Rusia Barat mengetahui э, misalnya dalam Miscellany of the 15th c. dari Public Library (manuscr . #391) (экъсеквїє dll.), kronik cc ke-15 dan ke-16, Miscellany of Poznań (c. ke-16) dan [3] Statuta 1588... Sulit untuk mengatakan apakah ini dikembangkan di sini secara mandiri atau berasal dari manuskrip Slavia Selatan, di mana э terjadi pada cc ke-13-14."[4] Meskipun revisi tata bahasa Meletius Smotrytsky yang diterbitkan di Moskwa pada tahun 1648 tidak menyertakan э dalam abjadnya, ia secara konsisten menulis Этѷмолѻ́гїа (Etymologia), berbeda dengan Єтѷмоло́ґїѧ dalam edisi pertama tahun 1619. Itu sama sekali tidak terbatas pada ini berfungsi dalam periode, bagaimanapun, sebagai ejaan umum реэстръ, маэоръ (di samping маиоръ, маіоръ) untuk bahasa Rusia modern реестр dan майор.

Di bahasa Rusia modern

Specimens of the civil script with annotations by Peter I.

In the specimens of the civil script presented to Peter I in 1708, forms of э were included among forms of є, but the latter was deleted by Peter. The former was used in some early 18th-century Russian texts, but some authorities of the period considered it superfluous, like Mikhail Lomonosov, on the grounds that "the letter Е, having several different pronunciations, could serve in the pronoun етотъ and the interjection ей"[5] and that it was inappropriate to introduce letters solely for use in loanwords. However, the inclusion of Э in its modern function, in the Russian Academy's Dictionary of 1789–94, marks the point from which it can be considered as an established part of the Russian orthographical standard.

There were still some objections to the letter even as late as 1817, when M. T. Kačenovskij was questioning whether "yet another hard э" was necessary when the language already had "a soft ѣ and a hard е".[6]

In contemporary Russian, э is used to represent [e], [ɛ] in initial position (электричество 'electricity') and postvocalic position (дуэль 'duel'). Among such words are only a few native Russian roots: эт- (это 'this is', этот/эта/это 'this (m./f./n.)', эти 'these', поэтому 'thus' etc.), эк- (экий 'what a'), эдак-/этак- (эдак/этак 'that way', эдакий/этакий 'sort of') and a few interjections like эй 'hey', э 'uh, oh', э-э-э 'uh'.

Even though Russian contains a significant number of loanwords in which [e] occurs after a hard (unpalatalised) consonant, it is still the practice to use the letter е for [e], [ɛ]: теннис, сепсис (tennis, sepsis). There are few traditional exceptions to that practice among common noun loanwords:

  • the original list (the first half of the 20th century) contained just three words:
    • мэр 'mayor', from French 'maire'
    • пэр 'peer (a noble)', from French 'pair'
    • сэр 'sir', from English or from Old French 'sieur'
  • two later additions (1950s-1960s):
    • мэтр 'master, skilled artist', from French 'maître'
    • пленэр, from French '(en) plein air'
  • new additions (1980s and later) are more numerous:
    • рэкет 'racket, racketeering', from English
    • рэп 'rap (music)', from English
    • фэнтези 'fantasy (literature)', from English
    • and several others; spelling of new words sometimes varies and dictionaries often give variants or contradict one another (like хетчбэк 'hatchback (car)' in spelling dictionary vs хетчбек/хэтчбек in explanatory dictionary[1]).

In proper nouns, however, э may occur after consonants: Улан-Удэ 'Ulan-Ude' and Блэр 'Blair'. However, many such loanwords are spelled with е: Блерио 'Blériot' (a French aviator). That is the case especially for names that entered the language centuries ago like: Берлин, 'Berlin'. The use of э is much more frequent for names from non-European languages: Мао Цзэдун 'Mao Zedong'.

The letter э is also used in Russian to render initial [œ] in foreign words: thus Eure (the river in France) is written Эр. After consonants this is transcribed as ё. In the 19th century, some writers used ӭ for that sound in both positions,[7] but that was never accepted as standard orthography. (The letter ӭ was re-invented in the 20th century for Kildin Sami.) It is also used to represent a stressed [æ] in languages such as English, which can cause a problem of conflating [æ] with English [ɛ] (for example, "Addison" and "Edison" would be spelled the same). However, in other positions, Russian also uses а for [æ] and е for [ɛ].

Di bahasa Belarusia modern

Unlike Russian, Belarusian has many native words in which it occurs after a hard consonant. Moreover, its orthography was standardized later than that of Russian (which reached its present form at the beginning of the 20th century), on the basis of the spoken language rather than historical tradition. Consequently, э and е are written in accordance with pronunciation: э for initial [e] and after hard consonants, е for initial and postvocalic [je] and after soft consonants. That also means that э is much more frequent in Belarusian than in Russian.

Di bahasa lain

In Tuvan the Cyrillic letter can be written as a double vowel.[8][9]

Dalam Bahasa Tajik, huruf е dan э mempunyai fungsi yang sama , kecuali э yang dipakai dalam awal kata (misal. Эрон, "Iran").[10]

In Mongolian, э is the standard letter to represent the /ɛ/ phoneme. It is often written doubled to represent the /eː/ phoneme. Е, however, is only used in the few Mongolian words containing it, Russian loanwords and Russian-style transcriptions of foreign names.

Huruf terkait

Kode Komputasi

Informasi karakter
Pratayang Э э
Nama Unicode CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER E CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E
Pengodean decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 1069 U+042D 1101 U+044D
UTF-8 208 173 D0 AD 209 141 D1 8D
Referensi karakter numerik Э Э э э
Referensi karakter bernama Э э
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 252 FC 220 DC
Code page 855 248 F8 247 F7
Code page 866 157 9D 237 ED
Windows-1251 221 DD 253 FD
ISO-8859-5 205 CD 237 ED
Macintosh Cyrillic 157 9D 253 FD

Referensi

  1. ^ Петар Ђорђић, Историја српске ћирилице, Београд, 2-a изд., 1987, p.87
  2. ^ Cf Банишко евангелие: среднобългарски паметник от XIII век, подгот. за печат с увод и коментар Е. Дограмаджиева и Б. Райков, София, 1981, hlm.13, 341
  3. ^ Diterbitkan dalam vol.17 dari Koleksi Lengkap Kronik Rusia.
  4. ^ "Западнорусский устав знает э, напр.в Сб.XV в.Публ.б.№ 391 ( Templat:Slavonik и др.), летописях XV—XVI вв., Позн.Сб.XVI в., Статуте 1588... Трудно сказать, развилось ли оно здесь самостоятельно atau же зашло из югославянских рукописей, где э встречается уже в XIII—XIV вв." (Е.Ф.Карский, Белорусы: Язык белорусского народа, вып.1, М., 1955, hal. 69). Lihat juga hal. 165-166 untuk detail dan contoh lebih lanjut.
  5. ^ Россійская Грамматика Михайла Ломоносова, печатана в Санктпетербургѣ, при Императорской Академїи Наук, 1755 года, p.43
  6. ^ [М. Т.] Каченовский, “Исторический взгляд на Грамматику Славянских наречий”, Труды О-ва любителей Российской словесности при имп. Московском университете, ч.IX (1817), pp.17-46. He was referring specifically to the spelling Этѷмоло́ґїѧ in the 1648 grammar mentioned above: “Каким образом появляется здесь обратное Э, которое в азбуке Мелетием обойдено? Разве нужно, при мягком Ѣ, при твердом Е, еще одно твердое Э?” so how far his remarks extend to the Russian of his own day is debatable. The reference to "a soft ѣ and a hard е" was referring to the pronunciation of Church Slavonic current in his day (which is still maintained by the Old Believers). That may have still been regarded as the literary ideal: see Б. А. Успенский, Архаическая система церковнославянского произношения, Москва, 1968, especially pp.29-35.
  7. ^ Я. К. Грот, Русское правописание, 19-ое изд., Санктпетербург, 1910, p.78
  8. ^ "Tuvan language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Diakses tanggal 14 June 2016. 
  9. ^ Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (24 July 2013). Compendium of the World's Languages. Routledge. ISBN 9781136258459. Diakses tanggal 14 June 2016 – via Google Books. 
  10. ^ "Encyclopedia Irancia, TAJIK PERSIAN". Diakses tanggal 19 December 2017. 

Pranala luar

  • Definisi kamus Э di Wikikamus
  • Definisi kamus э di Wikikamus

Baca informasi lainnya yang berhubungan dengan : E (Kiril)

Kembali kehalaman sebelumnya

Lokasi Pengunjung: 44.211.26.178