Share to: share facebook share twitter share wa share telegram print page

The Tortoise and the Hare

"The Tortoise and the Hare", from an edition of Aesop's Fables illustrated by Arthur Rackham, 1912

"The Tortoise and the Hare" is one of Aesop's Fables and is numbered 226 in the Perry Index.[1] The account of a race between unequal partners has attracted conflicting interpretations. The fable itself is a variant of a common folktale theme in which ingenuity and trickery (rather than doggedness) are employed to overcome a stronger opponent.

An ambiguous story

The story concerns a Hare who ridicules a slow-moving Tortoise. Tired of the Hare's arrogant behaviour, the Tortoise challenges him to a race.[2] The hare soon leaves the tortoise behind and, confident of winning, takes a nap midway through the race. When the Hare awakes, however, he finds that his competitor, crawling slowly but steadily, has arrived before him. The later version of the story in La Fontaine's Fables (VI.10), while more long-winded, differs hardly at all from Aesop's.[3]

As in several other fables by Aesop, the lesson it is teaching appears ambiguous. In Classical times, it was not the Tortoise's plucky conduct in taking on a bully that was emphasised but the Hare's foolish over-confidence. An old Greek source comments that "many people have good natural abilities which are ruined by idleness; on the other hand, sobriety, zeal and perseverance can prevail over indolence".[4]

When the fable entered the European emblem tradition, the precept to 'hasten slowly' (festina lente) was recommended to lovers by Otto van Veen in his Emblemata Amorum (1608), using a relation of the story. There, the infant figure of Eros is shown passing through a landscape and pointing to the tortoise as it overtakes the sleeping hare under the motto "perseverance winneth."[5] Later interpreters too have asserted that the fable's moral is the proverbial "the more haste, the worse speed" (Samuel Croxall) or have applied to it the biblical observation that "the race is not to the swift" (Ecclesiastes 9.11).

In the 19th century, the fable was given satirical interpretations. In the social commentary of Charles H. Bennett's The Fables of Aesop translated into Human Nature (1857), the hare is changed to a thoughtful craftsman prostrate under the foot of a capitalist entrepreneur.[6] Lord Dunsany brings out another view in his "The True History of the Tortoise and the Hare" (1915). There, the hare realises the stupidity of the challenge and refuses to proceed any further. The obstinate tortoise continues to the finishing line and is proclaimed the swiftest by his backers. But, continues Dunsany,

the reason that this version of the race is not widely known is that very few of those that witnessed it survived the great forest-fire that happened shortly after. It came up over the weald by night with a great wind. The Hare and the Tortoise and a very few of the beasts saw it far off from a high bare hill that was at the edge of the trees, and they hurriedly called a meeting to decide what messenger they should send to warn the beasts in the forest. They sent the Tortoise.[7]

A century later, Vikram Seth broadened the satire in his verse retelling of the fable in Beastly Tales (1991) and had it both ways. There is nothing to recommend in the behaviour of either protagonist by way of a moral. While the Tortoise's victory bolsters its joyless self-righteousness, the hare-brained loser is taken up by the media and "pampered rotten/ And the tortoise was forgotten".[8]

Applications

In Classical times the story was annexed to a philosophical problem by Zeno of Elea in one of many demonstrations that movement is impossible to define satisfactorily. The second of Zeno's paradoxes is that of Achilles and the Tortoise, in which the hero gives the Tortoise a head start in a race. The argument attempts to show that even though Achilles runs faster than the Tortoise, he will never catch up with her because, when Achilles reaches the point at which the Tortoise started, the Tortoise has advanced some distance beyond; when Achilles arrives at the point where the Tortoise was when Achilles arrived at the point where the Tortoise started, the Tortoise has again moved forward. Hence Achilles can never catch the Tortoise, no matter how fast he runs, since the Tortoise will always be moving ahead.[9][10]

The only satisfactory refutation has been mathematical and since then the name of the fable has been applied to the function described in Zeno's paradox. In mathematics and computer science, the tortoise and the hare algorithm is an alternative name for Floyd's cycle-finding algorithm.

Illustrations of the fable

A 19th-century illustration of La Fontaine's Fables by Jean Grandville

There is a Greek version of the fable but no early Latin version. For this reason it did not begin to appear in printed editions of Aesop's fables until the 16th century, one of the earliest being Bernard Salomon's Les Fables d'Esope Phrygien, mises en Ryme Francoise (1547).[11] Versions followed from the Netherlands (in Dutch, 1567) and Flanders (in French, 1578)[12] but none in English before Francis Barlow's edition of 1667.[13]

Among the many illustrations of the fable, that by the French caricaturist Jean Grandville is novel in portraying the tortoise as running upright. This is also how he is shown in the Walt Disney cartoon version of "The Tortoise and the Hare" (1935).[14] Another departure from the ordinary in Grandville's etching is the choice of a mole (complete with dark glasses) rather than, as usual, a fox as the judge at the finishing line. Auguste Delierre makes the judge a monkey in the 1883 edition of La Fontaine's fables that he illustrated.[15][16] La Fontaine says in his rhyme that it does not matter who the judge is; his interpreters have taken him at his word.

The Van Cortlandt Park sculpture with the Tortoise & Hare Café across the street

Outside of book production, there is an early 17th-century oil painting of the fable by the Flemish landscape artist Jan Wildens.[17] The hare enters on the left, racing over an upland road as dawn breaks; the tortoise is nowhere in sight. In the mid-19th century, the French animal painter Philibert Léon Couturier also devoted an oil painting to the fable in which, as in Grandville's illustration, the tortoise is shown racing upright.[18] In Edward Bawden's composite design of 1970 the hare is depicted racing and lying down at various stages of the race while, in contrast to his sprightly rival, the tortoise keeps going.[19]

There have also been two pieces of popular sculpture aimed at children. Nancy Schön's was made to commemorate the centenary of the Boston Marathon in 1996 and is sited in Copley Square, the finishing line for the race.[20] The tortoise is shown determinedly stumping forward while the hare has paused to scratch behind its ear. In the following year a painted steel sculpture by Michael Browne and Stuart Smith was set up near the cross-country finish line at Van Cortlandt Park in the Bronx.[21] The hare is mounted on the tortoise's shell and appears to be trying to leap over him.

Philately

The fable has also appeared on stamps from several countries. These include:

  • Cyprus, in which cartoon characters are depicted on a set of five €0.34 stamps (2011)[22]
  • Dahomey, on a 1972 set commemorating 350 years since La Fontaine's birth, in which it figures on the 10 franc stamp.[23]
  • Dominica, on a 2 cent stamp for Easter 1984, picturing a Disney tortoise carrying Easter eggs as it overtakes the sleeping hare[24]
  • France issued surcharged Red Cross stamps in 1978 on which the fable appeared on the 1 franc + 0.25 denomination.[25] It was also included in the 1995 strip of six 2.80 franc stamps commemorating the third centenary of the author's death.[26]
  • Greece issued a 1987 set illustrating Aesop's fables, including the tortoise and the hare on the 130 drachma stamp[27]
  • Hungary issued a set in 1980 with this fable on the 4 forint stamp[28]
  • The Maldives issued a 1990 set in which Disney characters act out the fables; the tortoise and the hare appear on the 15 laree stamp[29]
  • Monaco issued a composite 50 centime stamp on the 350th anniversary of La Fontaine's birth in 1971, with this fable included[30]
  • Sri Lanka issued a 5 rupee stamp for Child's broadcasting day 2007 which shows the contestants at the starting line[31]

Musical versions

Many allusions to the fable in musical titles are of limited or no relevance, but two interpretive instrumental versions may be noted. The one by Yellowjackets jazz quartet was recorded on their Politics album in 1988.[32] The Anglo-Irish band Flook's title is on their Haven album (2005).[33]

There have also been several verbal settings of Aesop's fable:

  • By W. Langton Williams (c. 1832–1896) in his Aesop’s Fables, versified & arranged for the piano forte (London, 1890)[34]
  • In Aesop's Fables Interpreted Through Music for voice and piano (New York, 1920) by Mabel Wood Hill (1870–1954). In this the moral stated is that "Plodding wins the race".[35]
  • Vincent Persichetti included it as the third piece in his Fables for narrator and orchestra (Op. 23, 1943)
  • A poetic version set for children's voices and piano by Edward Hughes in his Songs from Aesop's Fables (1965)
  • The cellist Evalyn Steinbock's setting for violin, cello and narrator in 1979
  • As the first of Anthony Plog's Aesop’s Fables for narrator, piano and horn (1989/93), in which the instruments mimic the pace of the animals[36]
  • The first of "Aesop's Fables for narrator and band" (1999) by Scott Watson (b. 1964)[37]
  • A setting for solo voice by Lucian Cristofor Tugui (2006)
  • Vladimir Cosma, as the sixth piece in Eh bien ! Dansez maintenant (2006), a light-hearted interpretation for narrator and orchestra of La Fontaine's version in the style of a rustic polka[38]
  • Movement Three of Julie Giroux's A Symphony of Fables, composed in 2006
  • As one of the five pieces in Bob Chilcott's Aesop's Fables for piano and choir (2008)[39]
  • A setting for a cappella choir by Darmon Meader (2009)[40]
  • As one of David Edgar Walther's 'short operatic dramas', composed in 2009
  • Among ten on David P Shortland's Australian recording, Aesop Go HipHop (2012), where the sung chorus after the hip hop narration underlines the fable's moral, "Slow and steady wins the race"[41]

Folk variants

The many other variants of the story in oral folk tradition appear worldwide and are classed as Aarne-Thompson-Uther type 275.[42] In most of these there is a race between unequal partners but most often brain is matched against brawn and the race is won by means of trickery. Broadly this is of two types: either the slower animal jumps on the other's back or tail and hops off at the end when the creature turns round to see where his challenger has got to, or else he is deceived by lookalikes substituting themselves along the course.

Tales with a similar theme emphasizing doggedness have been recorded in Native American culture. Hummingbird and Crane agree to race from one ocean to the other. Though Hummingbird flies faster, he stops at night to sleep. Crane, however, flies overnight and is overtaken by Hummingbird later and later during the day, at length coming in first. The ultimate prize differs between versions and includes choice of habitat, the love of a girl, or the right to cut the other down to size.[43]

See also

References

  1. ^ "THE TORTOISE AND THE HARE". Mythfolklore.net.
  2. ^ "Story Arts - Aesop's ABC - The Tortoise and The Hare". storyarts.org.
  3. ^ A translation is here
  4. ^ "237. THE TORTOISE AND THE HARE (Laura Gibbs, translator)". Mythfolklore.net. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  5. ^ The English emblem tradition, University of Toronto 1998, vol.IV, p.174
  6. ^ "Lepus et Testudo". Flickr – Photo Sharing!. 19 August 2010.
  7. ^ Lord Dunsany. Fifty-One Tales. Retrieved 2013-12-06. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  8. ^ Roopali Gupta, Vikram Seth's Art: An Appraisal, Atlantic Publishers, New Delhi 2005, pp.117-8
  9. ^ "Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  10. ^ Wilson, Catherine (2015). Leibniz's Metaphysics: A Historical and Comparative Study. Princeton University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-4008-7957-1.
  11. ^ "Aesop (Thomas Bewick)". Mythfolklore.net. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  12. ^ "Aesop's Fables - Victoria and Albert Museum". Vam.ac.uk. 2012-03-18. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  13. ^ "70. De lepore et testudine (1687), illustrated by Francis Barlow". Mythfolklore.net. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  14. ^ "The cartoon can be viewed on YouTube". Youtube.com. 2008-06-07. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  15. ^ The preparatory water colour is at the La Fontaine Museum
  16. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). Cuniculture.info. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  17. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). 1st-art-gallery.com. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  18. ^ "Le Lièvre et la Tortue Philibert Léon Couturier Peinture Toile Huile". philibert-leon-couturier.com.
  19. ^ Fry Art Gallery
  20. ^ "Hare and Tortoise, Boston, Mass by Nancy Schön". Schon.com. 1993-05-19. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  21. ^ "Public Art in the Bronx". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  22. ^ "Cyprus postal service". Mcw.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 17 December 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  23. ^ Stamp community
  24. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). Philatelia.ru. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Photographic image" (JPG). Environnement.ecole.free.fr. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  26. ^ "Creighton University :: Aesop's Fables: Individual Stamps". Creighton.edu. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  27. ^ "Creighton University :: Aesop's Fables: Greece". Creighton.edu. 1987-03-05. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  28. ^ "Creighton University :: Aesop's Fables: Hungary". Creighton.edu. 1960-12-01. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  29. ^ "Creighton University :: Aesop's Fables: Maldives". Creighton.edu. 1990-12-11. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  30. ^ La Maison du Collectioneur
  31. ^ "Stamp: Hare and the tortoise at the starting line (Sri Lanka (Ceylon)) (International Children's Broadcasting Day 2007) Mi:LK 1679,WAD:LK064.07". colnect.com.
  32. ^ "Yellow Jackets - Tortoise and the Hare (Live)". YouTube. 2006-07-27. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  33. ^ Live performance on YouTube
  34. ^ PDF at Toronto University
  35. ^ The score is available on the Rochester University site
  36. ^ A performance on YouTube
  37. ^ performance and score
  38. ^ You Tube, The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande conducted by the composer
  39. ^ FMHS Jaguar Chorale -- "Aesop's Fables: the Hare and the Tortoise". YouTube. 26 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21.
  40. ^ Performance on YouTube
  41. ^ "Slow and Steady" on YouTube
  42. ^ "The Tortoise and the Hare, and Other Races between Unequal Contestants". Pitt.edu. 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  43. ^ John Reed Swanton, Myths and Tales of the Southeastern Indians, University of Oklahoma 1929, p. 253

External links

Media related to The Tortoise and the Hare at Wikimedia Commons

  • 15th-20th century book illustrations online

Read other articles:

Ska

SkaSumber aliranMento Jamaika kalipso jazz rhythm and bluesSumber kebudayaanJamaika akhir 1950-anAlat musik yang biasa digunakanGitargitar bastrompet trombonsaksofonpianodrumorganBentuk turunanrocksteady, reggaeGenre campuran (fusion)2 Toneska popska punkska jazzska-corespougeChristian skaVersi regionalJepangAustraliaTopik lainnyaMod, skinhead, Suedehead Ska (pengucapan bahasa Inggris: [ˈskɑː], Kreol Jamaika Templat:IPA-endia) adalah genre musik yang berasal di Jamaika pada akhir 1950-an…

Opposition political party in Singapore This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: National Solidarity Party Singapore – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) National Solidarity Party Malay nameParti Perpaduan NasionalChinese name…

село Рахиня Країна  Україна Область Івано-Франківська область Район Калуський район Громада Долинська громада Облікова картка картка  Основні дані Засноване 1395 Населення 1144 Площа 14,56 км² Густота населення 78,57 осіб/км² Поштовий індекс 77514 Телефонний код +380 3477 Ге

Regering-Leterme II Zetelverdeling in de Kamer van volksvertegenwoordigers voor de bestuursmeerderheid van Leterme II Coalitie ​ CD&V/cdH ​ MR/Open Vld ​ PS Zetels Kamer 94 van 150 (10 juni 2007) Premier Yves Leterme Aantreden 25 november 2009 Ontslagnemend 26 april 2010 Einddatum 6 december 2011 Voorganger Van Rompuy Opvolger Di Rupo Portaal    België De regering-Leterme II (25 november 2009 - 6 december 2011) was een Belgische regering. Het was een coalitie tus…

Real BetisDatos generalesNombre completo Real Betis Baloncesto SAD(Sección de Baloncesto delReal Betis Balompié)Apodo(s) BéticosMascota JerónimoDeporte BaloncestoFundación 1987Historia CD Baloncesto Sevilla (1987-2016)Real Betis Baloncesto (2016-presente)Colores Verde, Blanco          Propietario(s) Conglomerado XoyPresidente Carlos LazoEntrenador Bruno SavignaniInstalacionesEstadio cubierto Palacio de Deportes San PabloUbicación Sevilla, EspañaCapa…

此生者传记没有列出任何参考或来源。 (2023年10月4日)请协助補充可靠来源,针对在世人物的无法查证的内容将被立即移除。 李熙俊男演员原文名이희준罗马拼音Lee Hee Jun国籍 韩国出生 (1979-06-29) 1979年6月29日(44歲) 韩国大邱廣域市達西區职业演員语言韓語教育程度韓國藝術綜合大學配偶李惠貞(2016年结婚)出道日期2007年经纪公司BH Entertainment 李熙俊或譯李熙峻(韓語

Pour les articles homonymes, voir Doire et Ferret. Doire de Ferretitalien : Dora di Ferret La Doire de Ferret à Entrèves avec le massif du Mont-Blanc sur la gauche. Caractéristiques Bassin collecteur Pô Cours Source Glacier de Pré de Bar · Localisation Petit col Ferret · Altitude 2 130 m · Coordonnées 45° 53′ 28″ N, 7° 03′ 36″ E Confluence Doire Baltée · Localisation Entrèves · Altitude 1 250 m · Coordonnées 45°…

Arbain RambeyLahir02 Juli 1961 (umur 62)Semarang, Jawa Tengah, IndonesiaKebangsaanIndonesiaWarga negaraIndonesiaPekerjaanPensiun Redaktur KompasArbainrambey.com Arbain Abdul Wahidin Rambey (lahir 02 Juli 1961)adalah seorang fotografer kelahiran Semarang ini telah lama eksis di jagat fotografi. Sosok Arbain merupakan salah satu contoh jurnalis yang menguasai penulisan dan fotografi sekaligus. Pernah menjabat redaktur foto di harian Kompas. Berbagai lomba fotografi telah dimenangkan baik even…

Mardan Mammad oglu MusayevNama asliMərdan Məmməd oğlu MusayevLahir1 Januari 1907ƏlimərdanlıMeninggal25 Maret 1982Rayon Tovuz, RSS Azerbaijan, Uni SovietPengabdianUni SovietDinas/cabangTentara MerahLama dinas1941–45PangkatSersan SeniorPerang/pertempuranPerang Dunia II Pertempuran Kaukasus Serangan Dnieper-Karpatia PenghargaanPahlawan Uni SovietMardan Mammad oglu Musayev (Azerbaijani: Mərdan Məmməd oğlu Musayev; 1 Januari 1907 – 25 Maret 1982) adalah seorang sersa…

Halaman ini berisi artikel tentang program ekonomi. Untuk kegunaan lain, lihat New Deal (disambiguasi). Atas kiri: Otoritas Tennessee Valley, bagian dari New Deal, disahkan oleh hukum pada 1933.Atas Kanan: Presiden Roosevelt, orang yang bertanggung jawab dalam program New Deal. Bawah: Sebuah karya Mural yang menunjukan para buruh bangunan pada masa New Deal. New Deal adalah beberapa program domestik yang diberlakukan di Amerika Serikat pada periode 1933 hingga 1936, dan beberapa waktu setelahnya…

Dr Mahamudu Bawunia ancien vice-président du Ghana Le vice-président de la République du Ghana est le second personnage de l'exécutif de la République du Ghana. Histoire La fonction de vice-président de la République est créé en 1979 avec la proclamation de la IIIe République avant de disparaître le 31 décembre 1981 lorsque la Constitution est suspendue par le coup d'État de Jerry Rawlings. Elle refait son apparition dans la Constitution de 1992 qui instaure la IVe République ghan…

Red Sunset on the DniproArtistArkhip KuindzhiYear1905–8MediumOil on canvasDimensions134.6 cm × 188 cm (53.0 in × 74 in)LocationMetropolitan Museum of Art, New York CityAccession1974.100 Red Sunset on the Dnipro[1] or Red Sunset on the Dnieper, originally titled Red Sunset, is an early 20th-century painting by Arkhip Kuindzhi. Done in oil on canvas, the painting depicts a sunset in the sky above the Dnieper river. Sunset is typical of Kuindzhi…

International cricket tour New Zealand cricket team in England in 2022    England New ZealandDates 2 – 27 June 2022Captains Ben Stokes Kane Williamson[n 1]Test seriesResult England won the 3-match series 3–0Most runs Joe Root (396) Daryl Mitchell (538)Most wickets Matty Potts (14) Trent Boult (16)Player of the series Joe Root (Eng), Daryl Mitchell (NZ) The New Zealand cricket team toured England in June 2022 to play three Test matches,[1] with the matches formi…

Indian electrical utility company This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: TP Central Odisha Distribution Limited – news · newspapers · books · scholar …

Commander OperationsEnsign of the Royal NavyIncumbentRear-Admiral Edward Ahlgrensince 26 April 2022Ministry of DefenceAbbreviationCOMOPSMember ofNavy CommandReports toFleet CommanderSeatNorthwood Headquarters, Hertfordshire, EnglandNominatorSecretary of State for DefenceAppointerPrime MinisterSubject to formal approval by the King-in-CouncilTerm lengthNot fixed (typically 1–3 years)Inaugural holderRear-Admiral Roger Lane-NottFormation1993Websiteroyalnavy.mod.uk The Commander Operations (C…

Ten artykuł dotyczy 4 Dywizji Piechoty okresu II RP. Zobacz też: 4 Dywizja Piechoty – inne dywizje piechoty o numerze 4. 4 Dywizja Piechoty Historia Państwo  Polska Sformowanie 1919[1] Rozformowanie 1939 Nazwa wyróżniająca Toruńska[a] Tradycje Rodowód Grupa Operacyjnej gen. Franciszka Aleksandrowicza Kontynuacja 26 Dywizja Piechoty[b]4 Lubuska Dywizja Zmechanizowana Dowódcy Pierwszy gen. Franciszek Aleksandrowicz Ostatni płk Tadeusz Lubicz-Niezabitowski Działania zbrojne wojna …

Flagstaff Point redirects here. For the New Zealand bluff formerly of that name, see Observation Point. Cape Royds is a dark rock cape forming the western extremity of Ross Island, facing on McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. It was discovered by the Discovery Expedition (1901–1904) and named for Lieutenant Charles Royds, Royal Navy, who acted as meteorologist on the expedition. Royds subsequently rose to become an Admiral and was later Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, London. There is a hut a…

2016 novel set in the Dune universe by Brian Herbert and Kevin J. Anderson Navigators of Dune First edition coverAuthorsBrian HerbertKevin J. AndersonAudio read byScott BrickCountryUnited StatesLanguageEnglishSeriesGreat Schools of DuneGenreScience fictionPublisherTor BooksPublication dateSeptember 13, 2016Media typePrint (hardcover)Pages448ISBN978-0-7653-8125-5OCLC918994424Dewey Decimal813.54[1]Preceded byMentats of Dune Followed byDune: The Duke of Caladan…

Not to be confused with Dudley_Aman,_1st_Baron_Marley. James MarleyJames Marley, circa 1917Member of Parliamentfor St Pancras (North) Personal detailsBorn(1893-05-06)6 May 1893Shotts, LanarkshireDied(1954-04-11)11 April 1954Bromley, KentNationalityBritishPolitical partyLabour James Marley (6 May 1893 – 11 April 1954) was a schoolmaster and a Labour politician who sat in the House of Commons between December 1923 and October 1924 and, again, between May 1929 and October 1931. He was both the se…

Istriku Sayang Istriku MalangSutradara Wahab Abdi Produser MT Fachruddin Rudy Lukito Ditulis oleh Asrul Sani PemeranMariniLenny MarlinaBroery PesolimaRia IrawanRatno TimoerYan BastianBagus AAlam SurawidjayaNico PelamoniaPenata musikIdris SardiPenyuntingCassim AbbasDistributorPT. Dara Mega FilmTanggal rilis 1977 (1977) Durasi95 menitNegara Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia Istriku Sayang Istriku Malang adalah film Indonesia tahun 1977 dengan disutradarai oleh Wahab Abdi dan dibintangi oleh Ma…

Kembali kehalaman sebelumnya

Lokasi Pengunjung: 3.92.91.54