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Computer programmer
Betty Jennings and Fran Bilas, part of the first ENIAC programming team
NamesComputer Programmer
Occupation type
Activity sectors
Information technology, Software industry
CompetenciesWriting and debugging computer code
Education required
Varies from apprenticeship to bachelor's degree, or self-taught

A programmer, computer programmer or coder is an author of computer source code – someone with skill in computer programming.

The professional titles software developer and software engineer are used for jobs that require a programmer.

Generally, a programmer writes code in a computer language and with an intent to build software that achieves some goal.


Sometimes a programmer or job position is identified by the language used or target platform. For example, assembly programmer, web developer.

Job title

The job titles that include programming tasks have differing connotations across the computer industry and to different individuals. The following are notable descriptions.

A software developer primarily implements software based on specifications and fixes bugs. Other duties may include reviewing code changes and testing. To achieve the required skills for the job, they might obtain a computer science or associate degree, attend a programming boot camp or be self-taught.

A software engineer usually is responsible for the same tasks as a developer plus broader responsibilities of software engineering including architecting and designing new features and applications, targeting new platforms, managing the software development lifecycle (design, implementation, testing, and deployment), leading a team of programmers, communicating with customers, managers and other engineers, considering system stability and quality, and exploring software development methodologies.

Sometimes, a software engineer is required to have a degree in software engineering, computer engineering, or computer science. Some countries legally require an engineering degree to be called engineer. [1][2][3]


Ada Lovelace is considered by many to be the first computer programmer.[4]

British countess and mathematician Ada Lovelace is often considered to be the first computer programmer. She authored an algorithm, which was published in October 1842, for calculating Bernoulli numbers on the Charles Babbage analytical engine.[4] Because the machine was not completed in her lifetime, she never experienced the algorithm in action.

In 1941, German civil engineer Konrad Zuse was the first person to execute a program on a working, program-controlled, electronic computer.[5] From 1943 to 1945, per computer scientist Wolfgang K. Giloi and AI professor Raúl Rojas et al., Zuse created the first, high-level programming language, Plankalkül.[6][7]

Members of the 1945 ENIAC programming team of Kay McNulty, Betty Jennings, Betty Snyder, Marlyn Wescoff, Fran Bilas and Ruth Lichterman have since been credited as the first professional computer programmers.[8][9]

The software industry

The first company founded specifically to provide software products and services was the Computer Usage Company in 1955. Before that time, computers were programmed either by customers or the few commercial computer manufacturers of the time, such as Sperry Rand and IBM.[10]

The software industry expanded in the early 1960s, almost immediately after computers were first sold in mass-produced quantities. Universities, governments, and businesses created a demand for software. Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers; some were distributed between users of a particular machine for no charge, while others were sold on a commercial basis. Other firms, such as Computer Sciences Corporation (founded in 1959), also started to grow. Computer manufacturers soon started bundling operating systems, system software and programming environments with their machines; the IBM 1620 came with the 1620 Symbolic Programming System and FORTRAN.[11]

The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the personal computer (PC) in the mid-1970s, which brought computing to the average office worker. In the following years, the PC also helped create a constantly growing market for games, applications and utility software. This resulted in increased demand for software developers for that period of time.[12]

Nature of the work

Computer programmers write, test, debug, and maintain the detailed instructions, called computer programs, that computers must follow to perform their functions. Programmers also conceive, design, and test logical structures for solving problems by computer. Many technical innovations in programming — advanced computing technologies and sophisticated new languages and programming tools — have redefined the role of a programmer and elevated much of the programming work done today. Job titles and descriptions may vary, depending on the organization.[13]

Programmers work in many settings, including corporate information technology (IT) departments, big software companies, small service firms and government entities of all sizes. Many professional programmers also work for consulting companies at client sites as contractors. Licensing is not typically required to work as a programmer, although professional certifications are commonly held by programmers.[13] Programming is considered a profession.[14][15][16]

Programmers' work varies widely depending on the type of business for which they are writing programs. For example, the instructions involved in updating financial records are very different from those required to duplicate conditions on an aircraft for pilots training in a flight simulator. Simple programs can be written in a few hours. More complex ones may require more than a year of work, while others are never considered 'complete' but rather are continuously improved as long as they stay in use. In most cases, several programmers work together as a team under a senior programmer's supervision.[citation needed]

Types of software

Programming editors, also known as source code editors, are text editors that are specifically designed for programmers or developers to write the source code of an application or a program. Most of these editors include features useful for programmers, which may include color syntax highlighting, auto indentation, auto-complete, bracket matching, syntax check, and allows plug-ins. These features aid the users during coding, debugging and testing.[17]


Market changes in the UK

According to BBC News, 17% of computer science students could not find work in their field six months after graduation in 2009 which was the highest rate of the university subjects surveyed while 0% of medical students were unemployed in the same survey.[18]

Market changes in the US

After the crash of the dot-com bubble (1999–2001) and the Great Recession (2008), many U.S. programmers were left without work or with lower wages.[19][20] In addition, enrollment in computer-related degrees and other STEM degrees (STEM attrition)[21] in the US has been dropping for years, especially for women,[22] which, according to Beaubouef and Mason,[23] could be attributed to a lack of general interest in science and mathematics and also out of an apparent fear that programming will be subject to the same pressures as manufacturing and agriculture careers. For programmers, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Occupational Outlook originally predicted a growth for programmers of 12 percent from 2010 to 2020[24] and thereafter a decline of -7 percent from 2016 to 2026, a further decline of -9 percent from 2019 to 2029, a decline of -10 percent from 2021 to 2031.[13] and then a decline of -11 percent from 2022 to 2032.[25] Since computer programming can be done from anywhere in the world, companies sometimes hire programmers in countries where wages are lower.[13] However, for software developers BLS projects for 2019 to 2029 a 22% increase in employment, from 1,469,200 to 1,785,200 jobs with a median base salary of $110,000 per year. This prediction is lower than the earlier 2010 to 2020 predicted increase of 30% for software developers.[26][27][20] Though the distinction is somewhat ambiguous, software developers engage in a wider array of aspects of application development and are generally higher skilled than programmers, making outsourcing less of a risk.[28][29] Another reason for the decline for programmers is their skills are being merged with other professions, such as developers, as employers increase the requirements for a position over time. Then there is the additional concern that recent advances in artificial intelligence might impact the demand for future generations of Software professions.[30][31][32][33][34][35][36]

See also


  1. ^ "Programmer vs. Software Engineer: What's the Difference?". University of Arizona. 11 December 2020. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  2. ^ Heinz, Kate (23 February 2021). "Software Engineer Vs. Programmer: What's the Difference?". Built In. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  3. ^ Jacob, Freya (16 March 2020). "6 Key Differences Between a Software Engineer and a Programmer". The Simple Programmer. Archived from the original on 29 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  4. ^ a b Fuegi, J.; Francis, J. (October–December 2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 25 (4): 16–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
  5. ^ "Konrad Zuse". IEEE. 2 April 2018. Archived from the original on 26 September 2022. Retrieved 4 February 2023.
  6. ^ Giloi, Wolfgang K. (1997). "Konrad Zuse's Plankalkül: The First High-Level 'non von Neumann' Programming Language". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 19 (2): 17–24. doi:10.1109/85.586068. Archived from the original on 23 March 2023.
  7. ^ Rojas, Raúl; Göktekin, Cüneyt; Friedland, Gerald; Krüger, Mike (February 2000). "Plankalkül: The First High-Level Programming Language and its Implementation". ResearchGate. Archived from the original on 12 June 2022. Retrieved 4 February 2023.
  8. ^ "Memorials". ENIAC Programmers Project. First Byte Productions. 16 May 2014. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  9. ^ Donaldson James, Susan (4 December 2007). "First Computer Programmers Inspire Documentary". ABC News. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  10. ^ Elmer C. Kubie (Summer 1994). "Recollections of the first software company". Annals of the History of Computing. 16 (2): 65–71. doi:10.1109/85.279238. S2CID 5733812.
  11. ^ "IBM Archives: 1620 Data Processing System". 23 January 2003. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Occupations in Information Technology". The United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 22 March 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d "Computer Programmers : Occupational Outlook Handbook". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Archived from the original on 3 May 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  14. ^ "How to Become a Computer Programmer". Coursera Inc. 30 September 2022. Archived from the original on 7 October 2022. Retrieved 2 February 2023. Computer programmers often take courses and seek certifications to enter the field and stay current in their skills in this ever-evolving profession.
  15. ^ "11 Types of Programming Jobs (With Duties and Salaries)". Indeed. 17 October 2022. Archived from the original on 2 February 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2023. Explore this profession and discover how you can thrive in a computer programming career.
  16. ^ Sartore, Melissa (22 December 2022). "What Is a Computer Programmer?". Archived from the original on 30 January 2023. Retrieved 2 February 2023. Explore this profession and discover how you can thrive in a computer programming career.
  17. ^ "BBC Bitesize - GCSE Computer Science - Programming software and the IDE - Revision 4". Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  18. ^ Shankleman, Martin (1 July 2010). "'One in 10' UK graduates jobless". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  19. ^ Mann, Amar; Nunes, Tony (August 2009). "After the Dot-Com Bubble: Silicon Valley High-Tech Employment and Wages in 2001 and 2008" (PDF). Regional Report, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: 1–8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  20. ^ a b Charette, Robert N. (30 August 2013). "The STEM Crisis is a Myth". (opinion). IEEE. Archived from the original on 7 August 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  21. ^ "STEM Attrition: College Students' Paths Into and Out of STEM Fields". 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 18 March 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  22. ^ "hp's Developer Portal | HP International Women's Week: Women in Computer Science dropping since 1980s". Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  23. ^ Beaubouef, Theresa; Mason, John (June 2005). "Why the high attrition rate for computer science students: some thoughts and observations". ACM SIGCSE Bulletin. 37 (2): 103–106. doi:10.1145/1083431.1083474. S2CID 207157501.
  24. ^ "Computer Programmers : Occupational Outlook Handbook : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". Archived from the original on 15 September 2012.
  25. ^ "Computer Programmers : Occupational Outlook Handbook". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
  26. ^ "Software Developers, Quality Assurance Analysts, and Testers : Occupational Outlook Handbook : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  27. ^ "Software Developers : Occupational Outlook Handbook". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013.
  28. ^ Brooks, Ashley (2019). "Computer Programmer vs. Software Developer: Decoding the Differences". Rasmussen University. Archived from the original on 30 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  29. ^ "Comparing Two Key Careers: Software Developer vs. Programmer". 31 July 2020. Archived from the original on 30 July 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  30. ^ "Software engineer jobs in danger due to ChatGPT-like tools? Here's what Google CEO Sundar Pichai has to say". Business Today. 6 April 2023. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  31. ^ "ChatGPT could make these jobs obsolete". 25 January 2023. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  32. ^ Kay, Grace. "Software engineers are panicking about being replaced by AI". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  33. ^ Fowler, Gary. "Council Post: How Will ChatGPT Affect Jobs?". Forbes. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  34. ^ Ito, Aki. "ChatGPT spells the end of coding as we know it". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  35. ^ Zinkula, Jacob; Mok, Aaron. "ChatGPT may be coming for our jobs. Here are the 10 roles that AI is most likely to replace". Business Insider. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  36. ^ Cohen, Mikaela (15 April 2023). "These are the tech jobs most threatened by ChatGPT and A.I." CNBC. Retrieved 12 May 2023.

Further reading

  • Weinberg, Gerald M., The Psychology of Computer Programming, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1971
  • An experiential study of the nature of programming work: Lucas, Rob (March–April 2010). "Dreaming in Code". New Left Review (62): 125–132. Archived from the original on 24 April 2012.
  • Thompson, Clive (2019). Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0735220560.

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