Share to: share facebook share twitter share wa share telegram print page

Mobile computing

Foldable Samsung Galaxy smartphones, capable of web browsing, e-mail access, video playback, document editing, file transfer, image editing, and other tasks common on smartphones. A smartphone is a tool of mobile computing.

Mobile computing is human–computer interaction in which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage and allow for transmission of data, which can include voice and video transmissions. Mobile computing involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Communication issues include ad hoc networks and infrastructure networks as well as communication properties, protocols, data formats, and concrete technologies. Hardware includes mobile devices or device components. Mobile software deals with the characteristics and requirements of mobile applications.

Main principles

The Telxon PTC-710 is a 16-bit mobile computer PTC-710 with MP 830-42 microprinter 42-column version.
  • Portability: Devices/nodes connected within the mobile computing system should facilitate mobility. These devices may have limited device capabilities and limited power supply but should have a sufficient processing capability and physical portability to operate in a movable environment.
  • Connectivity: This defines the quality of service (QoS) of the network connectivity. In a mobile computing system, the network availability is expected to be maintained at a high level with a minimal amount of lag/downtime without being affected by the mobility of the connected nodes.
  • Interactivity: The nodes belonging to a mobile computing system are connected with one another to communicate and collaborate through active transactions of data.
  • Individuality: A portable device or a mobile node connected to a mobile network often denotes an individual; a mobile computing system should be able to adopt the technology to cater to the individual needs and also to obtain contextual information of each node.


Some of the most common forms of mobile computing devices are as given below:

  • Portable computers, compact, lightweight units including a full character set keyboard and primarily intended as hosts for software that may be parameterized, such as laptops/desktops, smartphones/tablets, etc.
  • Smart cards that can run multiple applications but are typically used for payment, travel, and secure area access.
  • Mobile phones, telephony devices which can call from a distance through cellular networking technology.
The wearable computer, Apple Watch, released in 2015

These classes are expected to endure and to complement each other, none replacing another completely.

Other types of mobile computers have been introduced since the 1990s, including the:


  • Expandability, replaceability and modularity: In contrast to the common traditional motherboard-based PC the SoC architecture in which they are embedded makes these features impossible.
  • Lack of a BIOS: As most smart devices lack a proper BIOS, their bootloading capabilities are limited as they can only boot into the single operative system with which it came, in contrast with the PC BIOS model.
  • Range and bandwidth: Mobile Internet access is generally slower than direct cable connections, using technologies such as GPRS and EDGE, and more recently HSDPA, HSUPA, 3G and 4G networks and also the proposed 5G network. These networks are usually available within a range of commercial cell phone towers. High-speed network wireless LANs are inexpensive but have a very limited range.
  • Security standards: When working mobile, one is dependent on public networks, requiring careful use of VPN. Security is a major concern while concerning the mobile computing standards on the fleet. One can easily attack the VPN through a huge number of networks interconnected through the line.
  • Power consumption: When a power outlet or portable generator is not available, mobile computers must rely entirely on battery power. Combined with the compact size of many mobile devices, this often means unusually expensive batteries must be used to obtain the necessary battery life.
  • Transmission interferences: Weather, terrain, and the range from the nearest signal point can all interfere with signal reception. Reception in tunnels, some buildings, and rural areas is often poor.
  • Potential health hazards: People who use mobile devices while driving are often distracted from driving and are thus assumed more likely to be involved in traffic accidents.[1] (While this may seem obvious, there is considerable discussion about whether banning mobile device use while driving reduces accidents.[2][3]) Cell phones may interfere with sensitive medical devices. Questions concerning mobile phone radiation and health have been raised.
  • Human interface with device: Screens and keyboards tend to be small, which may make them hard to use. Alternate input methods such as speech or handwriting recognition require training.

In-vehicle computing and fleet computing

MOBIDIC mobile computer of 1959

Many commercial and government field forces deploy a rugged portable computer with their fleet of vehicles. This requires the units to be anchored to the vehicle for driver safety, device security, and ergonomics. Rugged computers are rated for severe vibration associated with large service vehicles and off-road driving and the harsh environmental conditions of constant professional use such as in emergency medical services, fire, and public safety.

The Compaq Portable - circa 1982 pre-laptop

Other elements affecting function in the vehicle:

  • Operating temperature: A vehicle cabin can often experience temperature swings from −30–60 °C (−22–140 °F). Computers typically must be able to withstand these temperatures while operating. Typical fan-based cooling has stated limits of 35–38 °C (95–100 °F) of ambient temperature and temperatures below freezing require localized heaters to bring components up to operating temperature (based on independent studies by the SRI Group and by Panasonic R&D).
  • Vibration can decrease the life expectancy of computer components, notably rotational storage such as HDDs.
  • Visibility of standard screens becomes an issue in bright sunlight.
  • Touchscreen users easily interact with the units in the field without removing gloves.
  • High-temperature battery settings: Lithium-ion batteries are sensitive to high-temperature conditions for charging. A computer designed for the mobile environment should be designed with a high-temperature charging function that limits the charge to 85% or less of capacity.
  • External antenna connections go through the typical metal cabins of vehicles which would block wireless reception and take advantage of much more capable external communication and navigation equipment.

Security issues involved in mobile

Mobile security has become increasingly important in mobile computing. It is of particular concern as it relates to the security of personal information now stored on the smartphone. Mobile applications might copy user data from these devices to a remote server without the users’ permission and often without the users’ consent.[4] The user profiles automatically created in the cloud for smartphone users raise privacy concerns on all major platforms, in terms of, including, but not limited to, location tracking[5] and personal data collection,[6] regardless of user settings on the device.[7]

More and more users and businesses use smartphones as a means of planning and organizing their work and private life. Within companies, these technologies are causing profound changes in the organization of information systems and therefore they have become the source of new risks. Indeed, smartphones collect and compile an increasing amount of sensitive information to which access must be controlled to protect the privacy of the user and the intellectual property of the company.

All smartphones are preferred targets of attacks. These attacks exploit weaknesses related to smartphones that can come from means of wireless telecommunication like WiFi networks and GSM. There are also attacks that exploit software vulnerabilities from both the web browser and operating system. Finally, there are forms of malicious software that rely on the weak knowledge of average users.

Different security counter-measures are being developed and applied to smartphones, from security in different layers of software to the dissemination of information to end-users. There are good practices to be observed at all levels, from design to use, through the development of operating systems, software layers, and downloadable apps.

Portable computing devices

Several categories of portable computing devices can run on batteries but are not usually classified as laptops: portable computers, PDAs, ultra mobile PCs (UMPCs), tablets, and smartphones.

  • A portable computer (discontinued) is a general-purpose computer that can be easily moved from place to place, but cannot be used while in transit, usually because it requires some "setting-up" and an AC power source. The most famous example is Osborne 1. Portable computers are also called a "transportable" or a "luggable" PC.
  • A personal digital assistant (PDA) (discontinued) is a small, usually pocket-sized, computer with limited functionality. It is intended to supplement and to synchronize with a desktop computer, giving access to contacts, address book, notes, e-mail, and other features.
    A Palm TX PDA
  • An ultra mobile PC (discontinued) is a full-featured, PDA-sized computer running a general-purpose operating system.
  • Tablets/phones: a slate tablet is shaped like a paper notebook. Smartphones are the same devices as tablets, however, the only difference with smartphones is that they are much smaller and pocketable. Instead of a physical keyboard, these devices have a touchscreen including a combination of a virtual keyboard but can also link to a physical keyboard via wireless Bluetooth or USB. These devices include features other computer systems would not be able to incorporate, such as built-in cameras, because of their portability - although some laptops possess camera integration, and desktops and laptops can connect to a webcam by way of USB.
  • A carputer is installed in an automobile. It operates as a wireless computer, sound system, GPS, and DVD player. It also contains word processing software and is Bluetooth compatible.[8]
  • A Pentop (discontinued) is a computing device the size and shape of a pen. It functions as a writing utensil, MP3 player, language translator, digital storage device, and calculator.[9]
  • An application-specific computer is one that is tailored to a particular application. For example, Ferranti introduced a handheld application-specific mobile computer (the MRT-100) in the form of a clipboard for conducting opinion polls.[10]

Boundaries that separate these categories are blurry at times. For example, the OQO UMPC is also a PDA-sized tablet PC; the Apple eMate had the clamshell form factor of a laptop but ran PDA software. The HP Omnibook line of laptops included some devices small enough to be called ultra mobile PCs. The hardware of the Nokia 770 internet tablet is essentially the same as that of a PDA such as the Zaurus 6000; the only reason it's not called a PDA is that it does not have PIM software. On the other hand, both the 770 and the Zaurus can run some desktop Linux software, usually with modifications.

Mobile data communication

Wireless data connections used in mobile computing take three general forms.[11] Cellular data service uses technologies GSM, CDMA or GPRS, 3G networks such as W-CDMA, EDGE or CDMA2000.[12][13] and more recently 4G and 5G networks. These networks are usually available within range of commercial cell towers. Wi-Fi connections offer higher performance,[14] may be either on a private business network or accessed through public hotspots, and have a typical range of 100 feet indoors and up to 1000 feet outdoors.[15] Satellite Internet access covers areas where cellular and Wi-Fi are not available[16] and may be set up anywhere the user has a line of sight to the satellite's location,[17] which for satellites in geostationary orbit means having an unobstructed view of the southern sky.[11] Some enterprise deployments combine networks from multiple cellular networks or use a mix of cellular, Wi-Fi and satellite.[18] When using a mix of networks, a mobile virtual private network (mobile VPN) not only handles the security concerns, but also performs the multiple network logins automatically and keeps the application connections alive to prevent crashes or data loss during network transitions or coverage loss.[19][20]

See also



  1. ^ (8 September 2016). "U Drive. U Text. U Pay". NHTSA. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  2. ^ "Hands Free Cell Phones No Safer, Insurance Study Claims". Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  3. ^ "Study: Distractions, not phones, cause car crashes". CNET. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  4. ^ Sikos, Leslie F.; Haskell-Dowland, Paul (5 Sep 2019). "Apple iPhones could have been hacked for years — here's what to do about it". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2019-09-09. Retrieved 2019-12-10.
  5. ^ Hautala, Laura (20 August 2018). "Google sued over tracking user location amid privacy concerns". CNET. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  6. ^ Lindsey, Nicole (10 April 2019). "Pre-Installed Apps on Android Represent a Threat to User Privacy and Security". CPO Magazine. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Google records your location even when you tell it not to". The Guardian. 14 August 2018. Archived from the original on 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Carputer Articles on Engadget". Engadget. AOL. Archived from the original on 5 May 2018. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  9. ^ "Gear Diary » The FLY Fusion Pentop Computer Review". 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  10. ^ G Rowley, K Barker, and V Callaghan “ The Questronic Project and the Ferranti MRT 100 A Boon For Survey Research”, The Professional Geographer, Volume 37, Issue 4, pages 459–463, November 1985
  11. ^ a b "Wireless Data Communications for Beginners". Ositech Communications. Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  12. ^ Lachu Aravamudhan, Stefano Faccin, Risto Mononen, Basavaraj Patil, Yousuf Saifullah, Sarvesh Sharma, Srinivas Sreemanthula. "Getting to Know Wireless Networks and Technology" Archived 2013-10-04 at the Wayback Machine, InformIT
  13. ^ "What really is a Third Generation (3G) Mobile Technology" Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine, ITU
  14. ^ Gier, Jim. "Wireless Network Industry Report" Archived 2012-10-12 at the Wayback Machine, Wireless Nets, Ltd.
  15. ^ "Wi-Fi" Archived 2012-03-27 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Mitchell, Bradley. "Satellite Internet". Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
  17. ^ "Introduction to Global Satellite Systems" Archived 2011-10-23 at the Wayback Machine, CompassRose International Publications
  18. ^ Case studies Archived 2012-03-31 at the Wayback Machine,
  19. ^ Phifer, Lisa. "Mobile VPN: Closing the Gap" Archived 2020-07-06 at the Wayback Machine,, July 16, 2006.
  20. ^ Cheng, Roger. "Lost Connections" Archived 2018-03-28 at the Wayback Machine, The Wall Street Journal, December 11, 2007.


Further reading

  • B'Far, Reza (2004). Mobile Computing Principles: Designing and Developing Mobile Applications with UML and XML. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81733-2.
  • Poslad, Stefan (2009). Ubiquitous Computing: Smart Devices, Environments and Interactions. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-03560-3.
  • Rhoton, John (2001). The Wireless Internet Explained. Digital Press. ISBN 978-1-55558-257-9.
  • Talukder, Asoke; Yavagal, Roopa (2006). Mobile Computing: Technology, Applications, and Service Creation. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-147733-8.

Read other articles:

Species of grass Hordeum brachyantherum Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Monocots Clade: Commelinids Order: Poales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Pooideae Genus: Hordeum Species: H. brachyantherum Binomial name Hordeum brachyantherumNevski Hordeum brachyantherum, known by the common name meadow barley, is a species of barley. It is native to western North America from Alaska to northern Mexico, coastal areas of easternmost Russia (Kamchat…

Untuk istilah yang sama dari sudut pandang Industri, lihat Industri 4.0. Rencana Dasar Sains dan Teknologi ke-5 Masyarakat 5.0 (Society 5.0) atau Masyarakat Super Pintar (Super Smart Society)[1] adalah konsep masyarakat masa depan yang diusulkan oleh Jepang.[2] Masyarakat 5.0 merupakan masyarakat yang berpusat pada manusia yang menyeimbangkan kemajuan ekonomi dengan penyelesaian masalah sosial melalui sistem yang sangat mengintegrasikan dunia maya dan ruang fisik.[3] Masy…

Sterrenkaart van sterrenbeeld Schorpioen Een sterrenkaart[1] is de weergave op een kaart van de sterren en sterrenbeelden aan de hemel. Een sterrenatlas bestaat uit een aantal kaarten die samen de gehele sterrenhemel weergeven (een aantal oudere atlassen beperkt zich tot de noordelijke sterrenhemel). Er bestaan zowel losbladige als gebonden versies. Hedendaagse sterrenkaarten Kaart van de nachthemel: sterposities uit de Bright Stars Catalogue, 5e editie Gedrukte kaarten worden tegenwoord…

  WASP-96b Fecha 2013Método de detección transit methodCategoría planeta extrasolarOrbita a WASP-96Constelación El FenixAscensión recta (α) 1,04640697216 grados sexagesimalesDeclinación (δ) −47,360645258642 grado sexagesimalInclinación 85,6 grados sexagesimalesExcentricidad 0Masa 0,48 masa jovianaRadio 1,2 Radios des Júpiteres[editar datos en Wikidata] WASP-96b es un exoplaneta gigante gaseoso. Su masa es 0,48 la de Júpiter. Está a 0,0453 AU de la estrella de tipo-G …

Cet article est une ébauche concernant une université. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. Université nationale des langues de KievHistoireFondation 1948StatutType Université publiqueSite web Ukrainemodifier - modifier le code - modifier Wikidata L'université nationale des langues de Kiev (en ukrainien : Київський національний лінгвіс

Bogenschießen bei denOlympischen Sommerspielen 1996 Information Austragungsort Vereinigte Staaten Atlanta Wettkampfstätte Stone Mountain Park Archery Center Nationen 41[1] (29 , 31 ) Athleten 128 (64 , 64 ) Datum 28. Juli bis 2. August 1996 Entscheidungen 4 ← Barcelona 1992 Sydney 2000 → Bei den XXVI. Olympischen Spielen 1996 in Atlanta wurden vier Wettbewerbe im Bogenschießen ausgetragen. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Bilanz 1.1 Medaillenspiegel 1.2 Medaillengewinner 2 Ergebnisse 2.1 Män…

Festival de Cine de Sídney en inglés: Sydney Film Festival Universidad de Sídney, donde se realizó la primera edición del festival.LocalizaciónPaís  AustraliaLocalidad Sídney,  AustraliaDatos generalesTipo FestivalSede SídneyPrimera vez 1954Comienzo 1954Fecha Durante 12 días del mes de julioEstado activoOrganizador Sydney Film FestivalMotivo Festival de cineCreación 1954[1]​Galardón Sydney Film Festival PrizeDirector Nashen Moodley[2]​Sitio web oficial[…

قرية قعاد الملح  - قرية -  تقسيم إداري البلد  اليمن المحافظة محافظة حجة المديرية مديرية الشغادرة العزلة عزلة السوالمة السكان التعداد السكاني 2004 السكان 321   • الذكور 163   • الإناث 158   • عدد الأسر 38   • عدد المساكن 38 معلومات أخرى التوقيت توقيت اليمن (+3 غرين

09V型核潜艇 概觀艦種攻击型核潜艇艦名出處長征-42X擁有國 中华人民共和国艦級北约代号:隋級代號北约代号:隋級 设计代号:09V/095前型09III型核潜艇次型09VII型核潛艇同型09VA型核潜艇數量计划8艘[1]製造廠渤海船舶重工有限责任公司現況列裝前測試技术数据排水量潜航排水量:7900噸潜航深度500米全長115米全寬12米吃水11米艇体结构單殼結構艇體燃料铀动力方式第二代…

Kau Untuk SiapaAlbum studio karya Betharia SonathaDirilis3 Februari 1982GenrePopLabelMusica StudiosKronologi Betharia Sonatha Kau Tercipta Untukku (1981)Kau Tercipta Untukku1981 Kau Untuk Siapa (1982) Lagu Pop Indonesia Vol. III (1982)Lagu Pop Indonesia Vol. III1982 Kau Untuk Siapa merupakan sebuah album musik karya Betharia Sonatha. Dirilis pada tahun 1982. Lagu utamanya di album ini ialah Kau Untuk Siapa. Daftar lagu Kau Untuk Siapa Tetap Setia Disisimu Nasib Cintaku Demam Rindu Seadanya S…

Yosef Yuan Zaide adalah seorang imam praja berkebangsaan Tiongkok. Setelah mendengar kotbah Monsignor Dufresse, ia terkesan dan memutuskan menjadi katekumen. Ia kemudian menjadi Pastor dan berkotbah di berbagai wilayah. Ia ditangkap pada bulan Agustus 1816, divonis dicekik sampai mati, dan eksekusinya berlangsung pada tanggal 24 Juni 1817.[1] Referensi ^ Artikel bertopik Tiongkok ini adalah sebuah rintisan. Anda dapat membant…

Irish baseball player (1883-1958) For other people named James Archer, see James Archer (disambiguation). Baseball player Jimmy ArcherCatcherBorn: (1883-05-13)May 13, 1883Dublin, IrelandDied: March 29, 1958(1958-03-29) (aged 74)Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.Batted: RightThrew: RightMLB debutSeptember 6, 1904, for the Pittsburgh PiratesLast MLB appearanceSeptember 2, 1918, for the Cincinnati RedsMLB statisticsBatting average.249Home runs16Runs batted in299 Teams Pit…

Мусульмани (босн. Muslimani, мак. Мислимани, серб. Муслимани, хорв. Muslimani, болг. Мюсюлмани) — у соціалістичній Югославії офіційна назва мусульманського населення, що говорило сербсько-хорватською мовою. Розселення мусульман за національністю у Чорногорії за переписом 2011 р. Прож

Football clubGuadalajaraFull nameClub Deportivo Guadalajara, S.A.D.Nickname(s)Guada Dépor Guada Dépor Deportivo Morados (Purples)Founded10 January 1947; 76 years ago (1947-01-10)GroundEstadio Pedro EscartínCapacity8,000PresidentCarlos ÁvilaHead coachGonzalo ÓnegaLeagueSegunda Federación – Group 52022–23Segunda Federación – Group 5, 7th of 18WebsiteClub website Home colours Away colours Current season Club Deportivo Guadalajara, S.A.D. is a Spanish football club bas…

Not to be confused with Godfather (soundtrack). 1972 soundtrack album by Nino RotaThe GodfatherSoundtrack album by Nino RotaReleased1972. CD: 26 March 1991 159487GenreFilm scoreLength31:31LabelParamount (original) / MCA (CD)ProducerTom MackThe Godfather chronology The Godfather(1972) The Godfather Part II(1974) The Godfather is the soundtrack from the film of the same name, released in 1972 by Paramount Records, and in 1991 on compact disc by MCA. Unless noted, the cues were composed by …

Villa Meeresgruss (Sea Greeting) in Binz, Rugia Island - a typical mansion in German resort architecture style Resort architecture[1] (German: Bäderarchitektur) is an architectural style that is especially characteristic of spas and seaside resorts on the German Baltic coast. The style evolved since the foundation of Heiligendamm in 1793, and flourished especially around the year 1870, when resorts were connected to big cities via railway lines. Until today, many buildings on the German…

2000 American TV series or program The SightDVD coverGenreHorrorThrillerWritten byPaul W. S. AndersonDirected byPaul W. S. AndersonStarring Andrew McCarthy Kevin Tighe Amanda Redman Jessica Oyelowo Music byJocelyn PookCountry of originUnited StatesUnited KingdomOriginal languageEnglishProductionExecutive producersPaul W. S. AndersonJeremy BoltJulia WebbProducerChris SymesCinematographyDavid JohnsonEditorDavid GambleRunning time96 minutesProduction companies20th Century Fox TelevisionIm…

Doctoral degree British actor Nigel Planer wearing the academic dress of a Doctor of Arts, awarded as an honorary degree by Edinburgh Napier University The Doctor of Arts (D.A.; occasionally D.Arts or Art.D. from the Latin artium doctor) is a discipline-based terminal doctoral degree that was originally conceived and designed to be an alternative to the traditional research-based Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and the education-based Doctor of Education (Ed.D.). Like other doctorates, the D.A. is …

American TV series or program The Lazarus EffectConcillia Muhau, who is featured in the film, with an earlier picture of herself[1]Directed byLance BangsCountry of originUnited StatesOriginal languageEnglishProductionRunning time30 minutesProduction companyRedOriginal releaseNetworkHBOReleaseMay 24, 2010 (2010-05-24) The Lazarus Effect is a 2010 documentary film about the positive impact of free antiretroviral drug therapy on HIV/AIDS patients in Africa. It was direct…

For other articles with the same name, see Bannu (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: Bannu Cantonment – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Cantonment in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, PakistanBannu Cantt باني کي…

Kembali kehalaman sebelumnya

Lokasi Pengunjung: