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Mobile app development

Mobile app development is the act or process by which a mobile app is developed for one or more mobile devices, which can include personal digital assistants (PDA), enterprise digital assistants (EDA), or mobile phones.[1] Such software applications are specifically designed to run on mobile devices, taking numerous hardware constraints into consideration. Common constraints include CPU architecture and speeds, available memory (RAM), limited data storage capacities, and considerable variation in displays (technology, size, dimensions, resolution) and input methods (buttons, keyboards, touch screens with or without styluses).[2] These applications (or 'apps') can be pre-installed on phones during manufacturing or delivered as web applications, using server-side or client-side processing (e.g., JavaScript) to provide an "application-like" experience within a web browser.[3]

Mobile app development has been steadily growing in terms of revenues and jobs created. A 2013 analyst report estimates there are 529,000 direct app economy jobs within the EU of which there are 28 members (including the UK), 60 percent of which are mobile app developers.[4]


In order to facilitate the development of applications for mobile devices, and the consistency thereof, various approaches have been taken.

Most companies that ship a product (e.g. Apple, iPod/iPhone/iPad) provide an official software development kit (SDK). They may also opt to provide some form of Testing and/or Quality Assurance (QA). In exchange for being provided the SDK or other tools, it may be necessary for a prospective developer to sign some form of non-disclosure agreement, or NDA, which restricts the sharing of privileged information.

As part of the development process, mobile user interface (UI) design is an essential step in the creation of mobile apps. Mobile UI designers consider constraints, contexts, screen space, input methods, and mobility as outlines for design. Constraints in mobile UI design, which include the limited attention span of the user and form factors such as a mobile device's screen size for a user's hand(s). Mobile UI context includes signal cues from user activity, such as the location where or the time when the device is in use, that can be observed from user interactions within a mobile app. Such context clues can be used to provide automatic suggestions when scheduling an appointment or activity or to filter a list of various services for the user.

The user is often the focus of interaction with their device, and the interface entails components of both hardware and software. User input allows for the users to manipulate a system, and the device's output allows the system to indicate the effects of the users' manipulation.

Overall, mobile UI design's goal is mainly for an understandable, user-friendly interface. Functionality is supported by mobile enterprise application platforms or integrated development environments (IDEs).

Developers of mobile applications must also consider a large array of devices with different screen sizes, hardware specifications, and configurations because of intense competition in mobile hardware and changes within each of the platforms.

Today, mobile apps are usually distributed via an official online outlet or marketplace (e.g. Apple - The App Store, Google - Google Play) and there is a formalized process by which developers submit their apps for approval and inclusion in those marketplaces. Historically, however, that was not always the case.

Mobile UIs, or front-ends, rely on mobile back-ends to support access to enterprise systems. The mobile back-end facilitates data routing, security, authentication, authorization, working off-line, and service orchestration. This functionality is supported by a mix of middleware components, including mobile app servers, mobile backend as a service (MBaaS), and service-oriented architecture (SOA) infrastructure.


The software development packages needed to develop, deploy, and manage mobile apps are made from many components and tools which allow a developer to write, test, and deploy applications for one or more target platforms.

Front-end development tools

Front-end development tools are focused on the user interface and user experience (UI-UX) and provide the following abilities:

  • UI design tools
  • SDKs to access device features
  • Cross-platform accommodations/support

Notable tools are listed below.


First party tools include official SDKs published by, or on behalf of, the company responsible for the design of a particular hardware platform (e.g. Apple, Google, etc) as well as any third-party software that is officially supported for the purpose of developing mobile apps for that hardware.

Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost
Android Java but portions of code can be in C, C++,


Debugger integrated in Eclipse, standalone debugging monitor available Yes Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, Android Studio, Project Kenai Android plugin for NetBeans Android only, because of Dalvik VM, March 2009 apk Free, IntelliJ IDEA Community Edition - Free
BlackBerry Java Debugger integrated in IDE Yes Eclipse, BlackBerry JDE BlackBerry only, because of RIM API alx, cod Free
iOS SDK Objective-C, Swift Debugger integrated in Xcode IDE Bundled with iPhone SDK, integrated with Xcode IDE Xcode, AppCode iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Only via App Store, needs review and approval by Apple Inc. Apple tools are free for an Intel-based Mac. Simulator testing is free, but installing on a device needs a fee for a developer signing key. AppCode - commercial licenses available.

Since 2015, Apple allows installing the app in your own device without a developer paid membership.[5]

iOS SDK Object Pascal Debugger integrated in Xcode IDE Included in Delphi XE2 professional or higher Embarcadero Delphi XE2 iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Only via App Store, needs review and approval by Apple Inc. Development requires Intel-based Mac besides the IDE on Windows. Design is on Windows, Compiling and deploying must be done on Mac. Simulator testing is free, but installing on a device needs a fee for a developer signing key

Second Party

Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost
Java ME Java Yes Free emulator, Sun Java Wireless Toolkit, mpowerplayer Eclipse, LMA NetBeans Mobility Pack Yes although many VM implementations have device specific bugs necessitating separate builds Jad/Jar packaging; PRC files under Palm OS Free

Third Party

Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost
Accelerator HTML5, C# Yes Yes Microsoft Visual Studio
(no lock-in)
All platforms, mobile apps are browser-based Mobile Web Commercial licenses available
MobileTogether XPath/XQuery, Action Trees visual programming language Yes Yes Proprietary IDE on Windows only Android, iOS, Windows, browser The native distribution for each format Free
App Inventor for Android Visual blocks-based programming language, with Interface designer Limited debugging tools built into IDE Yes Web-based interface designer, with connection to Java web-start program for blocks programming Android devices apk Free
Appcelerator JavaScript Yes, in Titanium Studio. Emulator is available using native emulators Titanium Studio based on Eclipse Android, iPhone; BlackBerry, Tizen, mobile web The native distribution format of each platform Free, open-sourced Apache 2.0 licensed, commercial and enterprise licenses available
Basic4android Visual Basic similar syntax Yes Emulator is available using native emulators Proprietary IDE Android The native distribution format of each platform Commercial licenses available
Codename One Java Yes Yes Eclipse, Netbeans Android, iPhone, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile, J2ME The native distribution format of each platform Open Source GPLv2 and subscription-based build server
Solar2D Lua Yes Yes Xcode Android, iOS, Nook Color Native deployment for each platform Free using MIT license
DragonRAD Visual drag & drop tiles Yes Uses third-party emulators Proprietary IDE Android, BlackBerry, Windows Mobile OTA deployment Free & commercial licenses available
GeneXus for Mobile and Smart Devices Knowledge representation and declarative programming-modeling for easy development, then code is automatically generated for each platform GeneXus utilizes pre-tested code libraries and user debugging of code not necessary after code generation. Publish in the cloud, test native in the device, no emulator needed Proprietary IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), BlackBerry OS, and even HTML5 if needed The native distribution format of each platform and also cloud-browser-based Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
IBM MobileFirst Studio HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and native SDK languages w/ Native Worklight API Yes, Mobile Browser Simulator or integration with Native SDK Debugger Emulator is available using native emulators or Browser Simulator w/ Cordova Plugin Eclipse plugin, Eclipse-based stand-alone Android, iOS, BlackBerry 6,7, & 10, Windows Phone 7.5 & 8, Windows 8 (desktop, tablets), Adobe AIR, Mobile Web App, desktop browser web page The native distribution format of each platform Developer edition free via Eclipse Marketplace, commercial license for deployment
Lazarus Object Pascal Yes, can debug in IDE via ActiveSync for Windows CE Uses the emulators of the platforms Lazarus IDE, including integrated GUI designer and debugger Compiled language available for Windows CE, Linux-based devices, Symbian port in development The native distribution format of each platform Free
LambdaNative Scheme No No but can build and test on the localhost Eclipse (software) (optional) All native binaries: Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10, Windows, OS X, Linux, OpenBSD, OpenWrt The native distribution format of each platform Free (BSD license)
LiveCode LiveCode Yes (integrated into IDE) Yes (iOS and Android emulators may be used) Yes iOS, Android, macOS, Windows, Linux, server, HTML5. Installer packaging The native distribution format of each platform free open-source edition, commercial and enterprise editions available
Macromedia Flash Lite ActionScript Yes Bundled with IDE Macromedia Flash MX2004/8, Eclipse Yes SIS-CAB deployment or OTA-IR-Bluetooth SWF files Varies, free but limited with MTASC
Marmalade C, C++ Yes Yes Visual Studio, Xcode All native: Android, BlackBerry, BREW, iOS (iPhone), Maemo, Palm-webOS, Samsung bada, Symbian, Windows Mobile 6.x and desktop, OS X The native distribution format of each platform Commercial licenses available
Meme IDE MemeScript Validation is provided in the problems view Yes, Android emulator can be integrated Eclipse RCP Android, Windows Mobile The native distribution format of each platform Free for development
Monaca HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes Preview is available on cloud IDE and local tool Cloud-based IDE, Visual Studio, third-party IDE/editors Android, iOS, windows8.1, 10 The native distribution format of each platform Free, up to 3 projects. Commercial and enterprise license available
Mono for Android C# Yes Yes Visual Studio 2005 and MonoDevelop Android The native distribution format of the platform
MonoTouch C# Yes Yes Visual Studio 2005 and MonoDevelop iOS The native distribution format of the platform
MoSync C, C++, Lua, HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Eclipse, Visual Studio 2005 and later, MoBuild w/ text editors Android, iOS (iPhone), Java ME, Moblin, Smartphone 2003, Symbian, Windows Mobile (Pocket PC), Blackberry (experimental) SIS, CAB, JAD, JAR, APK, OTA deployment Free, GPL 2.0, Free Indie Subscription; commercial subscription available
NetBeans C++, Java Yes Yes Java development tools Android (Mobile and Tablet), Nokia (Symbian, Seria 60 – 40 – 80), etc... Free
OpenPlug ActionScript, XML Yes Yes OpenPlug ELIPS plugin for Adobe Flash Builder Android, iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch), Symbian, Windows Mobile The native distribution format of each platform Free & commercial licenses available
OutSystems OutSystems, CSS, JavaScript Yes Test directly in browser OutSystems Service Studio Android, iOS, Windows Phone 7 NA Free community edition for personal use, or subscription licensing for commercial use
PhoneGap and Apache Cordova HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes A lot of functionality can be tested directly in browser. Running native emulators on iOS and Android is also possible. Yes Many IDEs exist for Cordova-based tools like Ionic Studio or iPhone, Android, Tizen, Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Symbian, Palm, Bada The native distribution format of each platform Apache 2
Qt SDK C++, QML Yes Yes Qt Creator Android (technology preview), iOS (technology preview), Symbian, Maemo, MeeGo, Linux, Windows, OS X The native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial licenses available
Rhomobile Ruby with HTML interface features compiled through an interpreter into native applications Yes N/A, applications can run in Win32 runner, or in device emulators for supported platforms. Xcode or Eclipse, on-demand RhoHub version includes full IDE Yes, supports Android 1.6+, iOS 3.0+ (iPhone, iPad), Windows Mobile 6.1 Professional, Windows Mobile 6.0 Standard, BlackBerry 4.6, 4.7, 5.0, 6.0 (4.2 and 4.5 supported but database access is very slow on these devices), Symbian OTA deployment, iOS through App store, .SIS, .CAB, .APK, .COD Rhodes is free and open source under the MIT License, RhoSync is under GPL or commercial, Commercial support available. Subscription for RhoHub
RubyMotion Ruby Yes Yes Any text editor. As an IDE, RubyMine. Android, iOS The native distribution format of the platform RubyMotion is a commercial product.
Sencha Touch HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Sencha Architect 2 Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Kindle, BlackBerry, Bada Web delivered, or hybrid via native shells for each platform GPLv3, free for commercial, paid for OEM and embedded systems
Smartface WYSIWYG design editor with JavaScript code editor Yes Yes Smartface IDE and SDK Yes Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), Kindle, Gear, Google Glass The native distribution format of each platform Community license and commercial licenses available
Stencyl Drag-and-drop editor based on Scratch, Objective-C Yes Yes Xcode iOS (iPad, iPhone, iPod Touch) The native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial development licenses
Telerik Platform, and AppBuilder HTML5, CSS and Javascript Yes Test right in browser or device In-browser client, desktop client, Visual Studio, Sublime Text or command-line interface (CLI) Android, iOS, Windows phone The native distribution format of each platform Free to try, commercial and enterprise licenses available
Unity C#, JavaScript, Boo, other .NET-based languages Yes Remote used to simulate device interaction before app is uploaded to the device. Unity Editor, also works with Visual Studios and MonoDevelop. Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), PC, Mac, desktop browser, Xbox 360, PS3, Wii. BlackBerry Playbook, Nokia Symbian, Roku 2 and others available through company's Union program. Native distribution format of each platform Free and commercial development licenses.
Verivo AppStudio WYSIWYG, graphical drag and drop, JavaScript, .NET-based languages. Replaced by Yes Test right in browser or device Proprietary design studio Android, iOS, Blackberry Native distribution format of each platform Free development licenses; per-CPU deployment licenses
ViziApps WYSIWYG, graphical drag and drop Yes Test right in browser or device Online design studio Android, iOS, Windows Phone planned The native distribution format of each platform Free to design, test, demo, update, app; fee to publish
V-Play Engine Objective C, C++, JavaScript, QML, Java Yes Yes Qt Creator All Platforms The native distribution format of each platform Free, Indie and Enterprise licenses are available
Wakanda HTML5, JavaScript Yes Yes Yes Wakanda Studio Android, iOS, Windows 10 (soon) and browser-based apps apk Open Source and Commercial licenses available
Xamarin C# Yes Yes Xamarin Studio (Mac only; deprecated), Visual Studio (Windows only), Visual Studio for Mac (Mac only; replaced Xamarin Studio)[6][7] Android, iOS, Windows Phone, Windows Store apps The native distribution of each platform Free community edition, pro edition included in Microsoft MSDN licensing
Xojo Xojo (similar to VB) Yes Yes Xojo IDE iOS, mobile web apps iOS apps are native iPad Free trial with no time limit; commercial licenses available

Back-end servers

Back-end tools pick up where the front-end tools leave off, and provide a set of reusable services that are centrally managed and controlled and provide the following abilities:

  • Integration with back-end systems
  • User authentication-authorization
  • Data services
  • Reusable business logic

Available tools are listed below.

Platform Programming language Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Deployment options Development tool cost
Altova MobileTogether Server Browser-based interface Proprietary IDE Server available for Windows, Linux, macOS. Supports mobile devices running Android, iOS, Windows 8, Windows 10 Windows Phone, HTML5 browser-based client On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Development tools are free, commercial license needed for deployment
GO!AppZone by Globo plc JavaScript. Custom integrations connectors/server-side logic: C#, VB.NET Yes, GO!AppZone Studio Android, BlackBerry, iOS, Windows Phone, 8.x, RT On-prem, cloud or hybrid Development tools are free, commercial license or subscription needed for deployment
IBM MobileFirst Server HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, and native SDK languages w/ Native Worklight API Eclipse plugin, Eclipse-based stand-alone Android, iOS, BlackBerry 6,7, & 10, Windows Phone 7.5 & 8, Windows 8 (desktop, tablets), Adobe AIR, Mobile Web App, desktop browser web page On-prem Developer edition free via Eclipse Marketplace, commercial license for deployment
Metismo Java Eclipse Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Java ME, BREW, BlackBerry, Nintendo DS, Palm/webOS, Sony PSP, Samsung bada, Symbian, Windows Mobile, Windows Phone 7, Windows Desktop, OS X On-prem Commercial licenses available
Wakanda JavaScript Use Wakanda Studio Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Windows Phone 10 (soon), HTML5 app On-prem or cloud Community and commercial editions
Verivo Akula Java Use any front-end IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), Windows Phone7 On-prem, cloud, or hybrid Free development licenses; per-CPU deployment licenses. Replaced by
WebORB Integration Server C#, VB.NET, Java, PHP, ActionScript, JavaScript, Objective-C,


Works with Eclipse, Visual Studio, intelliJ IDEA and Amethyst IDE Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad), BlackBerry Playbook, Windows Phone 7 On-prem Free development licenses; free and commercial deployment licenses

Security add-on layers

With bring your own device (BYOD) becoming the norm within more enterprises, IT departments often need stop-gap, tactical solutions that layer atop existing apps, phones, and platform component. Features include

  • App wrapping for security
  • Data encryption
  • Client actions
  • Reporting and statistics

System software

Many system-level components are needed to have a functioning platform for developing mobile apps.

Platform Programming language Debuggers available Emulator available Integrated development environment available Cross-platform deployment Installer packaging options Development tool cost
Adobe AIR ActionScript, HTML, CSS, JavaScript Yes Yes Flash Builder, Flash Professional, IntelliJ IDEA Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), BlackBerry The native distribution format of each platform Flash Builder, Flash Professional, IntelliJ IDEA - commercial licenses available Adobe AIR SDK (command line tool) - Free
BREW C; the APIs are provided in C with a C++ style interface Debugger support for the native ARM target code. Can use Visual Studio to debug the x86 testing code No Emulator for the target ARM code, has a simulator for the x86 testing code Visual Studio 6.0, Visual Studio 2003 .NET, Visual Studio 2005 Compile for the specific BREW version available on the handset OTA Related dev fees typically needed for Brew App Certification - VeriSign annual fee for becoming a certified developer. Realview ARM compiler for BREW (the free GNU C/C++ is available, but with limited function and support). TRUE BREW testing fee for distributing the application.
Firefox OS HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Yes No, but simulator available. Firefox browser, Firebug Web browser on other platform Firefox Marketplace, Web URL Development requires Mozilla Firefox and the simulator add-on
.NET Compact Framework C#, VB.NET, Basic4ppc Yes Free emulator, source code available, also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2008, 2005, 2003, Basic4ppc IDE Windows Mobile, Windows CE, Symbian-based devices via third-party tools OTA deployment, CAB files, ActiveSync Most tools free, but commercial editions of Visual Studio needed for visual designers
OpenFL Haxe (similar to Actionscript and Java) Yes Yes IntelliJ IDEA, FlashDevelop Android, iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod touch), BlackBerry Playbook, WebOS, HTML5, Flash, Windows (exe), Linux The native distribution format of each platform Free
Palm OS C, C++, Pascal Yes OS 1.0–4.1: free emulator provided by PalmSource (Access); OS 5.0: - 5.4 device-specific simulators provided by Palm (palmOne) Palm OS Development System (Eclipse), CodeWarrior, PocketStudio, HB++, Satellite Forms Palm OS handhelds, or Windows Mobile with StyleTap emulator PRC files, PalmSource Installer (.psi) Free (POSE or GCC for Palm OS), or commercial (CodeWarrior), or various commercial rapid-development frameworks
Python Python Yes Add-on to Nokia Emulator Several, including plugins for Eclipse Interpreted language available natively only on Nokia Series60 (and desktops) though ports exist to other mobile platforms, including Palm OS Sis deployment with py2sis or can use Python Runtime Free
Symbian C++ Yes Free emulator Many choices Compile per target SIS deployment Commercial and free tools available
Tizen Web-based: HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Native: C, C++ Yes Free emulator Tizen SDK Web-based app to be available on web browser Tizen through App store, Web URL Development needs Windows, OS X, or Ubuntu Desktop
Ubuntu Touch Web-based: HTML5, CSS, JavaScript Native: QML, C, C++ Yes Yes Ubuntu SDK HTML5 app to be available web browser. Ubuntu Touch through App store, Web URL Development requires Ubuntu Desktop 12.04 or higher, Free
webOS JavaScript, CSS, HTML, C and C++ through the PDK Yes Free emulator Eclipse webOS, Palm only OTA deployment, webOS through App store, Web URL, Precentral, .ipk Free
Windows Mobile C, C++ Yes Free emulator (source code available), also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2010, 2008, 2005, eMbedded VC++ (free), Satellite Forms Windows Mobile, Windows CE OTA deployment, CAB files, ActiveSync Free command-line tools or eMbedded VC++, or Visual Studio (Standard edition or better)
Windows Phone C#, Visual Basic, C, C++ Yes Free emulator, also bundled with IDE Visual Studio 2012, Visual Studio 2010 Windows Phone OTA deployment, XAP files

Criteria for selecting a development platform usually include the target mobile platforms, existing infrastructure, and development skills. When targeting more than one platform with cross-platform development, it is also important to consider the impact of the tool on the user experience. Performance is another important criterion, as research on mobile apps indicates a strong correlation between application performance and user satisfaction. Along with performance and other criteria, the availability of the technology and the project's requirements may drive the development between native and cross-platform environments. To aid the choice between native and cross-platform environments, some guidelines and benchmarks have been published. Typically, cross-platform environments are reusable across multiple platforms, leveraging a native container while using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript for the user interface. In contrast, native environments are targeted at one platform for each of those environments. For example, Android development occurs in the Eclipse IDE using Android Developer Tools (ADT) plugins, Apple iOS development occurs using the Xcode IDE with Objective-C and/or Swift, Windows and BlackBerry each have their own development environments.

Mobile app testing

Mobile applications are first tested within the development environment using emulators and later subjected to field testing. Emulators provide an inexpensive way to test applications on mobile phones to which developers may not have physical access. The following are examples of tools used for testing applications across the most popular mobile operating systems.

  • Google Android Emulator - an Android emulator that is patched to run on a Windows PC as a standalone app, without having to download and install the complete and complex Android SDK. It can be installed and Android compatible apps can be tested on it.
  • The official Android SDK Emulator - a mobile device emulator which mimics all of the hardware and software features of a typical mobile device (without the calls).
  • TestiPhone - a web browser-based simulator for quickly testing iPhone web applications. This tool has been tested and works using Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2 and Safari 3.
  • iPhoney - gives a pixel-accurate web browsing environment and it is powered by Safari. It can be used while developing web sites for the iPhone. It is not an iPhone simulator but instead is designed for web developers who want to create 320 by 480 (or 480 by 320) websites for use with iPhones. iPhoney will only run on OS X 10.4.7 or later.
  • BlackBerry Simulator - There are a variety of official BlackBerry simulators available to emulate the functionality of actual BlackBerry products and test how the device software, screen, keyboard and trackwheel will work with the application.
  • Windows UI Automation - To test applications that use the Microsoft UI Automation technology, it requires Windows Automation API 3.0. It is pre-installed on Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2 and later versions of Windows. On other operating systems, you can install it using Windows Update or download it from the Microsoft Web site.
  • MobiOne Developer - a mobile Web integrated development environment (IDE) for Windows that helps developers to code, test, debug, package and deploy mobile Web applications to devices such as iPhone, BlackBerry, Android, and the Palm Pre. MobiOne Developer was officially declared End of Life by the end of 2014.[8]

Tools include

  • eggPlant: A GUI-based automated test tool for mobile apps across all operating systems and devices.
  • Ranorex: Test automation tools for mobile, web and desktop apps.
  • Testdroid: Real mobile devices and test automation tools for testing mobile and web apps.

Design Principles for Creating Successful Mobile Apps

According to a 2020 Industry Report on Applications, 46% of mobile app users have stated that they have stopped using or uninstalled an app due to poor performance.[9] Design experts advocate for the following design principles to create successful and effective mobile apps:

Clutter-free screens: Keeps interactions quick and simple, allowing users to focus on one specific task rather than being overwhelmed with multiple features and tasks. Design experts strongly advocate for one task per screen and recommend breaking down long forms into pages and progressively revealing new tasks or fields to minimize clutter.[10]

Reduce cognitive load: Makes user journey through the app seamless and preserves natural flow through the app. Design experts suggest incorporating autocomplete, spell-check, prediction text assistance, and dropdown menus to reduce cognitive load. Design experts also recommend the state of the app be preserved when users temporarily leave the app and re-enter so that users can continue their journey from where they have left off.[10][11]

Simple navigation: Around 11% of people have uninstalled apps due to their complicated interface.[9] Design experts state it is paramount to present the navigation bar visibly in your app to help users navigate to frequently used and high-priority screens instantly. They suggest the use of recognizable icons specific to the device operating system to help users easily take actions such as opening a menu, changing settings, going back a screen, and searching within a page. According to them, a user should not be confused while navigating the app, so an orderly, clear, and logical navigation flow drives engagement and discovery in the app.[10][11]

Notifications: It’s reported that around 19% of users uninstall an app due to frequent push notifications.[9] Notifications should be sent with careful planning according to design experts. Experts state notifications should be sent at a time most convenient to users in their time zone and the messages should be personalized to bring great value to them.[10]

Speed Appearance: About 19% of people uninstall apps due to hang up issues.[9] Design experts state it’s important to make sure the app is fast and responsive so that users don’t have to wait for content. They state developers should deliver content faster or give the perception of progress. Some approaches suggested by the experts are the use of skeleton screens which show the layout of the app with content grayed out, progress bars or loading spinners, tasks being carried out in the background and delivering the content quickly when the user requests for it, or giving users some tasks or content while they are waiting for a page to load.[10]

Usability: Approximately 85% of mobile users use their phone with one hand,[9] thus design experts state it is important that the top-level menu, frequently used controls, and common action items are within the reach of the user’s thumb. They also stress the importance of readability and it’s recommended that the text size is at least 11 point font so that users can read it at the typical reading distance without zooming in.[10] It is recommended that headers and titles on the app screens be San Francisco 17pt and Roboto 16sp for iOS and Android OS respectively.[11] The experts also state there should be 4.5:1 minimum contrast ratio between text and the background color.[10] Design experts strongly encourage developers to make apps accessible for all users including people with disabilities, so they suggest features such as voice navigation, screen reader compatibility, and user interface adaptability in mobile apps.[11]


Many patent applications are pending for new mobile phone apps. Most of these are in the technological fields of business methods, database management, data transfer, and operator interface.[12]

See also


  1. ^ "Introduction to Mobile Application Development | IBM". Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  2. ^ "Essential Aspects to Consider While Designing Mobile Apps | GlobalLogic UK". GlobalLogic. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  3. ^ "What is a mobile app (mobile application)? – TechTarget Definition". Retrieved 24 June 2023.
  4. ^ VisionMobile, Plum Consulting, "European App Economy", September 2013
  5. ^ "Launching Your App on Devices". Apple Developer. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  6. ^ Linev, Roman (14 November 2016). "Microsoft rebrands Xamarin Studio as Visual Studio for Mac". Winaero. Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  7. ^ Foley, Mary Jo (10 May 2017). "Microsoft makes Visual Studio for Mac generally available". ZDNet. Retrieved 2 April 2023. Microsoft is making its Visual Studio for Mac -- a rebranded version of Xamarin Studio for the Mac -- generally available.
  8. ^ "MobiOne Developer 1.0 M4: Create App Store-ready Mobile Web Applications, Experience True Device Behavior on Windows". PRWeb. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Apps Statistics, Usage & Downloads (2020 report)". SaaS Scout (formerly SoftwareFindr). 6 January 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g "15 Mobile App Design Best Practices". ThoughtSpot. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  11. ^ a b c d Cordini, Marcelo (6 January 2021). "The best mobile app design: Examples". Qubika. Retrieved 20 February 2024.
  12. ^ Nowotarski et al., "Increasing Allowance Rates by Selectively Targeting Patent Class" IPwatchdog, April 6, 2011

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العلاقات النيجرية الباهاماسية النيجر باهاماس   النيجر   باهاماس تعديل مصدري - تعديل   العلاقات النيجرية الباهاماسية هي العلاقات الثنائية التي تجمع بين النيجر وباهاماس.[1][2][3][4][5] مقارنة بين البلدين هذه مقارنة عامة ومرجعية للدولتين: وجه المقا…

Pour les articles homonymes, voir Circuit de la Sarthe (homonymie). Circuit des 24 Heures Caractéristiques générales Lieu Le Mans France Coordonnées 47° 56′ 16″ nord, 0° 13′ 32″ est Géolocalisation sur la carte : Le Mans Circuit des 24 Heures Géolocalisation sur la carte : Sarthe Circuit des 24 Heures Géolocalisation sur la carte : Pays de la Loire Circuit des 24 Heures Géolocalisation sur la carte : France Circuit des 24 Heures…

For other ships named Amrum, see Amrum (disambiguation). For other ships named Empire Condor, see SS Empire Condor. History Name Amrum (1926-31) Quersee (1931-45) Empire Condor (1945-47) Mediterranean Trader (1947-49) Maharashmi (1949-51) Owner Schröder, Hölken & Fischer (1926-31) W Schuchmann (1931-45) Ministry of War Transport (1945) Ministry of Transport (1945-46) Akritas Navigation Co (1946-49) Det South East Asia Shipping Co (1949-51) Operator Schröder, Hölken & Fischer (1926-31…

العلاقات الآيسلندية الأرجنتينية آيسلندا الأرجنتين   آيسلندا   الأرجنتين تعديل مصدري - تعديل   العلاقات الآيسلندية الأرجنتينية هي العلاقات الثنائية التي تجمع بين آيسلندا والأرجنتين.[1][2][3][4][5] مقارنة بين البلدين هذه مقارنة عامة ومرجعية للدو

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: Väsby SS – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Väsby SSClub informationFull nameVäsby SimsällskapShort nameVSSCityUpplands VäsbyFounded1964; 59 years ago (1964)Home po…

يوشيهيرو ناكانو (باليابانية: 中野嘉大)‏  معلومات شخصية الميلاد 24 فبراير 1993 (30 سنة)  اكونه، كاغوشيما  الطول 1.76 م (5 قدم 9 1⁄2 بوصة) مركز اللعب وسط الجنسية اليابان  المدرسة الأم جامعة تسوكوبا  معلومات النادي النادي الحالي شونان بلمار الرقم 44 مسيرة الشباب سن…

Chemical structure of benzo[a]pyrene Chemical structure of benzo[e]pyrene A benzopyrene is an organic compound with the formula C20H12. Structurally speaking, the colorless isomers of benzopyrene are pentacyclic hydrocarbons and are fusion products of pyrene and a phenylene group. Two isomeric species of benzopyrene are benzo[a]pyrene and the less common benzo[e]pyrene. They belong to the chemical class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Overview Related compounds include cyclopentapyrenes, di…

Sikatan alis coklat Anthipes solitaris Status konservasiRisiko rendahIUCN22709355 TaksonomiKerajaanAnimaliaFilumChordataKelasAvesOrdoPasseriformesFamiliMuscicapidaeGenusAnthipesSpesiesAnthipes solitaris Müller, 1835 Tata namaSinonim takson *Ficedula solitaris lbs Sikatan alis coklat (Anthipes solitaris) adalah spesies burung dalam keluarga Muscicapidae. Burung ini ditemukan di Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, dan Vietnam. Alam habitat mereka adalah subtropis atau tropis lembab huta…

Former British Supreme Court justice (born 1941) For other people named Lawrence Collins, see Lawrence Collins (disambiguation). The Right HonourableThe Lord Collins of MapesburyPC FBAJustice of the Supreme Court of the United KingdomIn office1 October 2009 – 7 May 2011Nominated byJack StrawAppointed byElizabeth IIPreceded byPosition createdSucceeded byLord SumptionLord of Appeal in OrdinaryIn office20 April 2009 – 30 September 2009Preceded byThe Lord HoffmannSucceeded …

Medical discipline for preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection Infection prevention and control is the discipline concerned with preventing healthcare-associated infections; a practical rather than academic sub-discipline of epidemiology. In Northern Europe, infection prevention and control is expanded from healthcare into a component in public health, known as infection protection (smittevern, smittskydd, Infektionsschutz in the local languages). It is an essential part of the …

Book regarding theories of atonement in Christianity Part of a series onAtonement inChristianity Theories Classic paradigm Ransom(Patristic) Christus Victor(20th century) Recapitulation(Patristic) Objective paradigm Satisfaction(Scholastic / Anselmian) Penal substitution(Scholastic / Reformed / Arminian) Governmental(Arminian) Subjective paradigm Moral influence(Mixed) Moral example(Socinian) Types Limited(Scholastic / Reformed) Unlimited(E. Orthodox /…

Etanol como combustível no Brasil Selo postal de 1980, em comemoração ao Programa Nacional do Álcool (Proálcool). Características Classificação Ethanol fuel by country Faceta etanol  Localização Localidade Brasil [ Editar Wikidata ] [ Editar infocaixa ] O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor mundial de etanol combustível e segundo maior exportador mundial. Juntos, Brasil e Estados Unidos lideram a produção industrial de etanol, representando em conjunto 82,4% da produção mundia…

يفتقر محتوى هذه المقالة إلى الاستشهاد بمصادر. فضلاً، ساهم في تطوير هذه المقالة من خلال إضافة مصادر موثوق بها. أي معلومات غير موثقة يمكن التشكيك بها وإزالتها. (ديسمبر 2019) 1968 في الأرجنتينمعلومات عامةالبلد الأرجنتين 1967 في الأرجنتين 1969 في الأرجنتين تعديل - تعديل مصدري - تعديل ويك…

Penghargaan dan nominasi iKON Penghargaan dan nominasi Penghargaan Menang Nominasi Gaon Chart K-Pop Awards 5 6 Golden Disk Awards 3 9 Japan Gold Disc Awards 2 2 Mnet Asian Music Awards 2 6 Melon Music Awards 4 8 Seoul Music Awards 3 13 Arena Homme+'s A-awards 1 1 Asia Artist Awards 2 2 China Music Awards 1 1 Genie Music Awards 1 8 Japan Record Awards 2 2 Netease Attitude Awards 1 1 QQ Music Awards 2 2 Soribada Best K-Music Awards 0 3 The Fact Music Awards 2 2 V Live Awards 1 3 korean Popular Cul…

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