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Museum Situs Kota China

Museum Situs Kota China di Kelurahan Paya Pasir

Museum Situs Kota China merupakan nama sebuah situs arkeologi yang terletak di tepi danau Siombak, Kelurahan Paya Pasir, Kecamatan Medan Marelan, Kota Medan.

Sejarah

Dari abad ke-12 sampai 14 Masehi, Kota China adalah pelabuhan dagang internasional. Kapal-kapal yang berlabuh berasal dari Persia, Hindia dan Tiongkok. Di Kota China ditemukan keramik dari Persia dan Tiongkok, uang koin dari Sri Lanka dan Tiongkok, dan patung Buddha dari Hindia.

Situs Kota China di Medan Marelan telah diketahui sejak tahun 1970-an, namun jejak sejarahnya mulai terkuak sejak ditemukanya sebuah arca kuno tepatnya pada saat adanya penggalian tanah menggunakan alat berat untuk penimbunan pembangunan jalan Tol Belmera pada tahun 1986 silam. Kota China adalah kerajaan yang makmur dan terdapat bandar internasional yang dihuni para imigran asal Tiongkok. Pada umumnya, bangsa Tiongkok datang dengan latar belakang keinginan untuk mencari peruntungan hidup lebih baik dari tempat asalnya dengan melakukan bisnis perdagangan.

Pada masa Dinasti Song, bandar Kota China mengalami kejayaan. Kawasan daratan dan pantai dihuni imigran dari negeri Tiongkok, dengan pelabuhan rakyat serta jalur perdagangan tersibuk. Transaksi perdagangan seperti tembikar, guci, keramik, rempah-rempah dan arca berlanggam Chola atau India Selatan. Di bandar ini juga berlangsung beragam aktivitas budaya. Bukti dari sejarah pelabuhan ini diketahui setelah adanya penemuan kayu rangka dari bangkai kapal. Bandar Kota China mendadak terhenti setelah kota itu dilanda musibah alam. Kawasan pelabuhan laut yang berkembang pesat, terkubur menjadi daratan. Dari cerita legenda di masyarakat, hilangnya Kota China dikarenakan menerima kutukan dan diserang oleh pasukan kepah. Sedangkan sebagian lain beranggapan, kota tempat imigran Tiongkok itu hilang setelah terkena bencana tsunami.

Sekitar lima abad kemudian setelah bandar Kota China terjadi pendangkalan, pelabuhan baru lalu berdiri di kawasan Bandar Labuhan Deli. Saat ini lokasinya berada di wilayah Kelurahan Pekan Labuhan yang berjarak sekitar 3 kilometer dari lokasi situs Kota China. Sejarah bandar Labuhan Deli dibangun pada tahun 1814 setelah raja ketiga dari Kesultanan Deli yaitu Tuanku Panglima Pasutan, memindahkan pusat pemerintahan Kesultanan Deli dari Deli Tua ke daerah Labuhan Deli.

Lihat pula

Daftar pustaka

  • McKinnon, E. Edwards, Kota Cina, an important early trading site on the east coast of Sumatra, 1976
  • McKinnon, E. Edwards, Kota Cina its context and meaning in the trade of southeast Asia in the twelfth to fourteenth centuries, Cornell University, 1984
  • Miksic, John N.; Yap, Choon Tek, Compositional Analysis of Pottery from Kota Cina, North Sumatra: Implications for Regional Trade during the Twelfth to Fourteenth Centuries A.D. , 1992, University of Hawai'i Press (Honolulu)
  • Milner, A. C.; McKinnon, E. Edwards;Sinar, Tengku Luckman, "A Note on Aru and Kota Cina", Indonesia No. 26 (Okt., 1978), hal. 1-42
  • Perret, Daniel et al., " The French-Indonesian Archaeological Project in Kota Cina (North Sumatra): Preliminary Results and Prospects", Archipel tahun 2013, 86, hal. 73-111
  • Whitten, Tony;Damanik, Sengli J.;Anwar, Janazul; Hisyam, Nazaruddin, The Ecology of Sumatra, 1997, Eric Oey (Singapura)

Pranala luar

3°43′21″N 98°39′22″E / 3.72250°N 98.65611°E / 3.72250; 98.65611 (Indonesia) Situs Pariwisata Kota Medan

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